(Marine-route of Jia-tan)
The Xin Tang-Shu has the geographical articles in which Jia-Dan’s “sea route map” is quoted.
”After five days journey from ‘the Con Dao Island’, one reaches a strait which the barbarians call ‘Zhi(質)’, and which is 100 li from south to north. On its northern shore is the kingdom of Luo-Yue, on its southern shore the kingdom of Fo-shi (Śrīvijaya). Some four or five days’ journey over the water to the eastward of Fo-shi is the kingdom of Kha-ling, the largest islands in the south Then, emerging from the strait, in three days one reaches the kingdom of ‘Ko-ko-seng-chih’, which is situated on another island off the north-west corner of Fo-shi. The inhabitants are mostly pirates. Voyagers on junks go in dread of them. On the northern shore of the strait is the kingdom of Ko-lo. To the west of Ko-lo is the kingdom of Ko-ku-lo.
In this case, “Chi (質)” is interpreted ‘selat’( ‘strait’ in Malay language), and generally supposed to be the Singapore Strait. However the Singapore Strait is too narrow, less than 10 kilometers width. 100li means about 40 kilometers. Furthermore ‘selat’ has three meanings, ‘strait’ ‘narrow’ and ‘sound (bay)’. In this case, ‘selat’ might be the Bay of Bandon, of which mouth is about 40 kilometers from north to south. If Chi is identified as the Singapore Strait (硤), the location of Luo-Yue (羅越) must be Johore, at the south end of the Malay Peninsula. And the location of ‘Shih-li-fo-shi’ may be the Riau Islands far from Sumatra, but many historians neglect the actual distance between Sumatra and Riau. This hypothesis is a convenient story for ‘Palembang theory’. However, Luo-Yue cannot be Johore. In the Tang times, Johore was not developed so much as to be an emporium for neighboring states.
Jia-Tan says from “Chi (質)”, one can go to Kha-ling (訶陵国). In this case, Kha-ling means the middle of the Malay Peninsula, probably “Sathing-Phra” or “Songkhla”. Then one goes down further and crosses the Singapore Strait to the west, within three days, one can arrive at ‘Ko-ko-seng-chih (葛葛僧祇國)’, which is unidentified, but possibly an island, near Malacca. The “Chi (質)” is apparently different ftom the Singapore Strait (硤). We should be free from prejudice that Kha-ling was in Java. Apparently some officials of the Tang court acknowledged that a part of the Malay Peninsula belonged to Kha-ling, whether it was correct or not and such views were inherited by the writers of The Xin Tang-Shu in the Song times.
The Tang court probably considered the territory of Shih-li-fo-shi covered from a part of the Malay Peninsula including Kedah to the southern part of Sumatra such as Malayu, Jambi and Palembang. Ho-lo (Ko-la=箇羅) may be Kedah. Ko-la, Kalah and Kadaram are all similar words. Ko-ku-lo (哥谷羅) is not formally identified yet, but I suppose it means the Kho Khao Island. The Kho Khao Island is located just in front of Takua Pa and its “Thung Tuk” was the market place for international merchant. Q.Wales found out remains of old entrepôtKo-ku-lo’ is located at the Malay Peninsula, the position of Luo-Yue should be northern part of the Peninsula. Furthermore the residents in Luo-Yue were similar to Dvaravati people (probably ‘Mon tribe’), so Luo-Yue cannot be Johore. Lou-Yue probably had the territory across the root of the Malay Peninsula facing the Bengal Bay, and the northward was ‘sea water’ to Bengal
There is another description in the Xin Tang-Shu, “The northward from Luo-Yue is 5,000 li sea water, and the south-west is Ko-ku-lo (哥谷羅)”. According to ‘the Jia-Dan’s map’ Ko-ku-lo is apparently located north of Lou-Yue if it was supposed to be located at Johore. The Xin Tang-Shu says that traders from various directions gather around Lou-Yue. However actually Lou-Yue is located north of Ko-ku-lo (哥谷羅). So, apparently Lou-Yue is not Johore and located farther north. The customs of the resident of Lou-Yue are same as those of Dvaravati. Every year, the merchant-ship of Lou-Yue comes to Canton and reports to the local officials. So, I consider that the location of Lou-Yue was near the mainland of Thailand and the upper north of the Malay Peninsula, near Ratchaburi to Tenasserim.
As the conclusion, Jia-Dan’s itinerary map is not accurate, so flexible interpretation by readers is needed. However many historians easily decide Chi(質) means ‘strait’ so that it is the Strait of Singapore. They have been in haste to connect everything to Palembang. I understand “Chi” is the proper name of location, near the Bay of Bandon. It is probably “Si Surat=Surat Thani”.
As the identification of Luo-Yue, ‘Ratburi (Ratchaburi)’ may be the proper location. Ratburi has huge historical remains, and is considered once big emporium which had port facilities on the west coast as well as on the east coast. Historically Ratburi had been under control of Funan, because the Bay of Thai (Siam) was dominated by Funan’s and Śrīvijaya’s navy. As Dr. Toyohachi Fujita suggested, Ko-lo-she-fen (哥羅舎分)’may be Ratchaburi. Fen (Bun=分) is apparently ‘buri (town)’ and ‘Lo-she’ should be pronounced as ‘Ra-cha’. Ko (哥) is meaningless ‘prefix’.
According to the “Tong-Dian(通典)”, compiled by Du-You(杜祐) in 801, Ko-lo-she-fen (or Kha-la sha-bun) is situated in the southern part of the South Seas. It adjoins the kingdom of To-ho-lo (or Da-wa-la 堕和羅). It can put 20,000 soldiers in the field. In the fifth year of the Xian Qing (顕慶) of the Tang(660), King Pu-yue-jia-ma (蒲越伽摩) sent envoys to tribute.
According to the” Ce-fu Yuan-Gui (冊府元亀)”, the ambassador of Ko-lo-she-fen left their port in 659 and arrived to the Tang court in 662. This fact means the ambassador took the course of the Malacca Strait. Around 660s, the Bay of Siam(Thai) had been under control of Pan-pan and former Funan’s navy, so Ko-lo-she-fen could not use the shortest course.