米中貿易

中国海関統計によれ場、中国からの対米輸出(FOB)は4298億ドルである。一方米国からの輸入(CIF)は1539億ドルに過ぎない。中国の圧倒的な輸出超過である。中国からの輸出品目は電気機械と機械類が圧倒的に多く。全体の46.2%を占めている。次に多いのが』繊維製品(衣類など)で
ほぼ10%を占めている。
これらの製品はスマハやコンピュータなどの組み立て品が多く、必ずしも高い技術を要する高付加価値品ではない。繊維はもちろん低付加価値品の典型である。

自動車は4.6&を占めるが、これは米国内の自動車メーカー(外資を含む)が使用する部品であり、完成車はほとんどない。

中国の対米輸出(100万ドル、%)
実額と伸び率、構成比

2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017
I Live animals, fish, dairy 2,103 2,006 2,007 -4.8 -4.6 0.0
II Vegetable products 1,442 1,578 1,594 6.0 9.5 1.0
III Animal, vegetable oil 86 76 84 -7.7 -12.2 11.2
IV Beverages, tabacco 3,584 3,572 3,828 -1.0 -0.3 7.2
V Mineral, ores, oils 1,336 1,587 1,623 -23.4 18.8 2.2
VI Chemicals, fertilizers 12,549 11,830 13,947 -1.9 -5.7 17.9
VII Plastics, rubber 17,990 16,315 18,535 0.3 -9.3 13.6
VIII Leather, skin 7,939 6,490 6,824 14.7 -18.3 5.1
IX Wood,cork, charcoal 4,103 4,116 3,987 5.7 0.3 -3.1
X Pulp, paper 4,548 3,720 4,139 26.3 -18.2 11.3
XI Textile, clothing, silk 44,774 42,116 42,446 6.9 -5.9 0.8
XII Footware, umbrellas 18,486 15,816 15,963 6.4 -14.4 0.9
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic 8,433 6,400 7,338 39.9 -24.1 14.7
XIV Jewerry, pearl 4,207 3,724 3,587 -4.2 -11.5 -3.7
XV Base metals 23,206 19,685 22,511 4.7 -15.2 14.4
72 Iron & Steel 1,495 536 598 -39.9 -64.2 11.6
XVI Machinery, Electronics 179,533 172,440 198,539 -1.8 -4.0 15.1
84 Machinery & parts 84,352 79,376 91,645 -7.1 -5.9 15.5
85 Electrical machinery, parts 95,180 93,064 106,894 3.4 -2.2 14.9
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels 16,955 16,804 19,684 -0.1 -0.9 17.1
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr 11,005 10,878 10,640 6.0 -1.1 -2.2
XIX Arms, amunition 109 88 82
XX Miscellaneous 47,025 45,352 51,034 18.4 -3.6 12.5
XXI Works of art, antiques 121 55 40
XXII Commodities not classified 6 436 1,324
Total 409,538 385,085 429,755 3.4 -6.0 11.6
I Live animals, fish, dairy 0.5 0.5 0.5
II Vegetable products 0.4 0.4 0.4
III Animal, vegetable oil 0.0 0.0 0.0
IV Beverages, tabacco 0.9 0.9 0.9
V Mineral, ores, oils 0.3 0.4 0.4
VI Chemicals, fertilizers 3.1 3.1 3.2
VII Plastics, rubber 4.4 4.2 4.3
VIII Leather, skin 1.9 1.7 1.6
IX Wood,cork, charcoal 1.0 1.1 0.9
X Pulp, paper 1.1 1.0 1.0
XI Textile, clothing, silk 10.9 10.9 9.9
XII Footware, umbrellas 4.5 4.1 3.7
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic 2.1 1.7 1.7
XIV Jewerry, pearl 1.0 1.0 0.8
XV Base metals 5.7 5.1 5.2
72 Iron & Steel 0.4 0.1 0.1
XVI Machinery, Electronics 43.8 44.8 46.2
84 Machinery & parts 20.6 20.6 21.3
85 Electrical machinery, parts 23.2 24.2 24.9
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels 4.1 4.4 4.6
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr 2.7 2.8 2.5
XIX Arms, amunition 0.0 0.0 0.0
XX Miscellaneous 11.5 11.8 11.9
XXI Works of art, antiques 0.0 0.0 0.0
XXII Commodities not classified 0.0 0.1 0.3
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0




中国の米国からの輸入:(単位100万ドル、%)

2015 2016 2017 2015 2016 2017
I Live animals, fish, dairy 2,030 2,782 3,056 -30.5 37.1 9.9
II Vegetable products 16,423 16,650 16,962 -15.5 1.4 1.9
III Animal, vegetable oil 68 149 139 -72.6 119.6 -7.2
IV Beverages, tabacco 3,641 2,624 1,768 14.9 -27.9 -32.6
V Mineral, ores, oils 4,568 3,840 9,045 -3.0 -15.9 135.5
VI Chemicals, fertilizers 12,656 12,530 14,577 -1.4 -1.0 16.3
VII Plastics, rubber 7,442 7,153 8,147 -7.9 -3.9 13.9
VIII Leather, skin 1,671 1,285 1,258 -8.3 -23.1 -2.1
IX Wood,cork, charcoal 2,221 2,516 3,070 -22.6 13.3 22.0
X Pulp, paper 5,309 5,064 5,742 -0.7 -4.6 13.4
XI Textile, clothing, silk 1,982 1,277 1,841 -21.5 -35.6 44.2
XII Footware, umbrellas 114 126 116 23.8 10.2 -7.3
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic 1,167 1,289 1,254 -23.4 10.5 -2.8
XIV Jewerry, pearl 5,996 2,694 5,289 1,612.8 -55.1 96.3
XV Base metals 5,759 4,593 5,471 -18.2 -20.2 19.1
72 Iron & Steel 285 225 369 -17.4 -21.0 64.0
XVI Machinery, Electronics 35,423 30,360 33,877 -7.4 -14.3 11.6
84 Machinery & parts 15,826 14,504 16,494 -5.3 -8.4 13.7
85 Electrical machinery, parts 19,597 15,855 17,383 -9.0 -19.1 9.6
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels 30,261 27,345 29,280 1.4 -9.6 7.1
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr 11,343 11,173 11,757 -0.5 -1.5 5.2
XIX Arms, amunition 0 1 1
XX Miscellaneous 605 564 537 23.6 -6.8 -4.7
XXI Works of art, antiques 16 20 11
XXII Commodities not classified 42 367 745
Total 148,737 134,402 153,943 -6.5 -9.6 14.5
I Live animals, fish, dairy 1.4 2.1 2.0
II Vegetable products 11.0 12.4 11.0
III Animal, vegetable oil 0.0 0.1 0.1
IV Beverages, tabacco 2.4 2.0 1.1
V Mineral, ores, oils 3.1 2.9 5.9
VI Chemicals, fertilizers 8.5 9.3 9.5
VII Plastics, rubber 5.0 5.3 5.3
VIII Leather, skin 1.1 1.0 0.8
IX Wood,cork, charcoal 1.5 1.9 2.0
X Pulp, paper 3.6 3.8 3.7
XI Textile, clothing, silk 1.3 1.0 1.2
XII Footware, umbrellas 0.1 0.1 0.1
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic 0.8 1.0 0.8
XIV Jewerry, pearl 4.0 2.0 3.4
XV Base metals 3.9 3.4 3.6
72 Iron & Steel 0.2 0.2 0.2
XVI Machinery, Electronics 23.8 22.6 22.0
84 Machinery & parts 10.6 10.8 10.7
85 Electrical machinery, parts 13.2 11.8 11.3
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels 20.3 20.3 19.0
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr 7.6 8.3 7.6
XIX Arms, amunition 0.0 0.0 0.0
XX Miscellaneous 0.4 0.4 0.3
XXI Works of art, antiques 0.0 0.0 0.0
XXII Commodities not classified 0.0 0.3 0.5
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0



米国の対中国赤字額(100万ドル、%)

2015 2016 2017
I Live animals, fish, dairy -73 776 1,050
II Vegetable products 14,981 15,071 15,368
III Animal, vegetable oil -18 73 54
IV Beverages, tabacco 57 -948 -2,060
V Mineral, ores, oils 3,232 2,253 7,423
VI Chemicals, fertilizers 107 700 631
VII Plastics, rubber -10,548 -9,162 -10,388
VIII Leather, skin -6,268 -5,205 -5,566
IX Wood,cork, charcoal -1,882 -1,600 -917
X Pulp, paper 761 1,344 1,603
XI Textile, clothing, silk -42,792 -40,839 -40,605
XII Footware, umbrellas -18,372 -15,690 -15,847
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic -7,266 -5,110 -6,085
XIV Jewerry, pearl 1,789 -1,030 1,702
XV Base metals -17,447 -15,092 -17,040
72 Iron & Steel -1,210 -311 -229
XVI Machinery, Electronics -144,109 -142,080 -164,662
84 Machinery & parts -68,526 -64,871 -75,151
85 Electrical machinery, parts -75,583 -77,209 -89,512
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels 13,305 10,541 9,596
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr 338 295 1,117
XIX Arms, amunition -108 -87 -81
XX Miscellaneous -46,420 -44,789 -50,497
XXI Works of art, antiques -106 -35 -29
XXII Commodities not classified 36 -69 -579
Total -260,802 -250,682 -275,812
I Live animals, fish, dairy 0.0 -0.3 -0.4
II Vegetable products -5.7 -6.0 -5.6
III Animal, vegetable oil 0.0 -0.0 -0.0
IV Beverages, tabacco -0.0 0.4 0.7
V Mineral, ores, oils -1.2 -0.9 -2.7
VI Chemicals, fertilizers -0.0 -0.3 -0.2
VII Plastics, rubber 4.0 3.7 3.8
VIII Leather, skin 2.4 2.1 2.0
IX Wood,cork, charcoal 0.7 0.6 0.3
X Pulp, paper -0.3 -0.5 -0.6
XI Textile, clothing, silk 16.4 16.3 14.7
XII Footware, umbrellas 7.0 6.3 5.7
XIII Stone, glass, ceramic 2.8 2.0 2.2
XIV Jewerry, pearl -0.7 0.4 -0.6
XV Base metals 6.7 6.0 6.2
72 Iron & Steel 0.5 0.1 0.1
XVI Machinery, Electronics 55.3 56.7 59.7
84 Machinery & parts 26.3 25.9 27.2
85 Electrical machinery, parts 29.0 30.8 32.5
XVII Vehicles, airpcraft,vessels -5.1 -4.2 -3.5
XVIII Optical, clocks, musical insr -0.1 -0.1 -0.4
XIX Arms, amunition 0.0 0.0 0.0
XX Miscellaneous 17.8 17.9 18.3
XXI Works of art, antiques 0.0 0.0 0.0
XXII Commodities not classified -0.0 0.0 0.2
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0


この貿易収支は中国海関統計に基づく数値であり。米国のセンサス(Census)統計よりは少ない。


米国のCensus統計によれば2016念の対中貿易赤字は3,470億ドルである。中国海関統計では2016年の赤字は2,570億ドル、2017年では2,758億ドルである。この差はどこから出てくるかはよくわからないが、CIFとFOBの差があるのと、香港経由の防疫が中国海関統計からは外れていることが大きな要因である。

米国の貿易統計、Censusbase(単位;100万ドル、%

2013 2014 2015 2016 14/13 15/14 16/15
World Ttl Export 1,592,784 1,632,639 1,510,303 1,459,643 2.5 -7.5 -3.4
Import 2,294,453 2,374,101 2,272,868 2,209,917 3.5 -4.3 -2.8
Balance -701,669 -741,462 -762,565 -750,274 5.7 2.8 -1.6
Japn Export 65,206 66,827 62,423 63,284 2.5 -6.6 1.4
Import 138,573 134,004 131,364 132,202 -3.3 -2.0 0.6
Balance -73,368 -67,177 -68,942 -68,918 -8.4 2.6 0.0
China Export 121,736 123,676 116,072 115,775 1.6 -6.1 -0.3
Import 440,448 466,754 483,245 462,813 6.0 3.5 -4.2
Balance -318,711 -343,078 -367,173 -347,038 7.6 7.0 -5.5
Hong Kong Export 42,342 40,858 37,167 34,906 -3.5 -9.0 -6.1
Import 5,684 5,869 6,796 7,385 3.2 15.8 8.7
Balance 36,658 34,989 30,371 27,521 -4.6 -13.2 -9.4
China+HK Export 164,078 164,534 153,239 150,681 0.3 -6.9 -1.7
Import 446,132 472,623 490,040 470,198 5.9 3.7 -4.0
Balance -282,054 -308,089 -336,802 -319,517 9.2 9.3 -5.1
Korea Export 41,715 44,471 43,446 42,266 6.6 -2.3 -2.7
Import 62,388 69,518 71,759 69,932 11.4 3.2 -2.5
Balance -20,674 -25,047 -28,313 -27,666 21.2 13.0 -2.3
Taiwan Export 25,472 26,670 25,860 28,045 4.7 -3.0 8.4
Import 37,940 40,518 40,908 39,313 6.8 1.0 -3.9
Balance -12,468 -13,848 -15,048 -11,268 11.1 8.7 -25.1
Singapore Export 30,672 30,237 28,472 26,868 -1.4 -5.8 -5.6
Import 17,843 16,426 18,268 17,801 -7.9 11.2 -2.6
Balance 12,829 13,811 10,205 9,067 7.7 -26.1 -11.1
Indonesia Export 9,100 8,284 7,121 6,037 -9.0 -14.0 -15.2
Import 18,877 19,361 19,602 19,203 2.6 1.2 -2.0
Balance -9,777 -11,077 -12,481 -13,166 13.3 12.7 5.5
Malaysia Export 13,007 13,086 12,277 11,867 0.6 -6.2 -3.3
Import 27,289 30,420 33,971 36,687 11.5 11.7 8.0
Balance -14,282 -17,334 -21,694 -24,820 21.4 25.1 14.4
Thailand Export 11,797 11,810 11,231 10,573 0.1 -4.9 -5.9
Import 26,173 27,123 28,632 29,493 3.6 5.6 3.0
Balance -14,376 -15,313 -17,401 -18,920 6.5 13.6 8.7
Philippine Export 8,404 8,453 4,908 8,263 0.6 -41.9 68.4
Import 9,269 10,144 10,234 10,047 9.4 0.9 -1.8
Balance -865 -1,691 -5,326 -1,784 95.4 214.9 -66.5
Vietnam Export 5,036 11,136 7,088 121.1 -36.4 -100.0
Import 24,657 30,219 38,020 22.6 25.8 -100.0
Balance -19,620 -19,083 -30,932 0 -2.7 62.1 -100.0
ASEAN 6 Export 78,016 83,006 71,096 63,608 6.4 -14.3
(2016除Viet) Import 124,108 133,693 148,725 113,231 7.7 11.2
Balance -46,092 -50,687 -77,629 -49,623 10.0 53.2
India Export 21,842 21,606 21,452 21,689 -1.1 -0.7 1.1
Import 41,845 45,244 44,792 45,998 8.1 -1.0 2.7
Balance -20,003 -23,638 -23,340 -24,309 18.2 -1.3 4.2
Australia Export 26,130 26,582 25,036 22,225 1.7 -5.8 -11.2
Import 9,272 10,672 10,894 9,534 15.1 2.1 -12.5
Balance 16,858 15,910 14,142 12,691 -5.6 -11.1 -10.3
Canada Export 301,610 312,421 280,609 266,827 3.6 -10.2 -4.9
Import 332,553 347,798 296,256 278,067 4.6 -14.8 -6.1
Balance -30,943 -35,377 -15,647 -11,240 14.3 -55.8 -28.2
Mexico Export 226,079 240,249 235,745 230,959 6.3 -1.9 -2.0
Import 280,529 294,074 296,408 294,151 4.8 0.8 -0.8
Balance -54,450 -53,825 -60,663 -63,192 -1.1 12.7 4.2
Brazil Export 44,119 42,429 31,651 30,297 -3.8 -25.4 -4.3
Import 27,634 30,537 27,468 26,178 10.5 -10.0 -4.7
Balance 16,485 11,892 4,182 4,119 -27.9 -64.8 -1.5
Columbia Export 18,392 20,107 16,287 13,099 9.3 -19.0 -19.6
Import 21,626 18,300 14,075 13,796 -15.4 -23.1 -2.0
Balance -3,234 1,807 2,212 -697 -155.9 22.4 -131.5
Venezuela Export 13,204 11,138 8,346 5,255 -15.6 -25.1 -37.0
Import 31,997 30,219 15,584 10,892 -5.6 -48.4 -30.1
Balance -18,794 -19,081 -7,238 -5,697 1.5 -62.1 -22.0
Saudi Arabia Export 18,957 18,705 19,738 18,023 -1.3 5.5 -8.7
Import 51,807 47,041 22,081 16,926 -9.2 -53.1 -23.3
Balance -32,850 -28,336 -2,343 1,097 -13.7 -91.7 -146.8
UAE Export 24,446 22,069 23,004 -9.7 4.2 -100.0
Import 2,294 2,614 2,468 14.0 -5.6 -100.0
Balance 22,152 19,455 20,536 0 -12.2 5.6 -100.0
Euro Area Export 201,392 205,456 200,949 200,167 2.0 -2.2 -0.4
Import 331,598 326,994 332,780 325,880 -1.4 1.8 -2.1
Balance -130,206 -121,538 -131,831 -125,713 -6.7 8.5 -4.6
Belgium Export 31,941 34,790 34,160 32,271 8.9 -1.8 -5.5
Import 19,021 20,885 19,513 17,020 9.8 -6.6 -12.8
Balance 12,920 13,905 14,647 15,251 7.6 5.3 4.1
France Export 31,745 31,301 30,104 30,941 -1.4 -3.8 2.8
Import 45,708 46,874 47,815 46,765 2.6 2.0 -2.2
Balance -13,963 -15,573 -17,712 -15,824 11.5 13.7 -10.7
Germany Export 47,362 49,363 49,971 49,363 4.2 1.2 -1.2
Import 114,345 123,260 124,821 114,227 7.8 1.3 -8.5
Balance -66,983 -73,897 -74,850 -64,864 10.3 1.3 -13.3
Ireland Export 6,640 7,806 8,931 9,556 17.6 14.4 7.0
Import 31,496 33,956 39,336 45,504 7.8 15.8 15.7
Balance -24,857 -26,150 -30,405 -35,948 5.2 16.3 18.2
Italy Export 16,755 16,968 16,204 16,754 1.3 -4.5 3.4
Import 38,692 42,115 44,159 45,210 8.8 4.9 2.4
Balance -21,937 -25,147 -27,955 -28,456 14.6 11.2 1.8
Netherland Export 42,572 43,075 40,196 40,377 1.2 -6.7 0.4
Import 18,231 20,818 16,836 16,152 14.2 -19.1 -4.1
Balance 24,341 22,257 23,361 24,225 -8.6 5.0 3.7
Spain Export 10,241 10,200 10,310 10,373 -0.4 1.1 0.6
Import 11,677 14,416 14,130 13,468 23.5 -2.0 -4.7
Balance -1,436 -4,216 -3,820 -3,095 193.6 -9.4 -19.0
Sweden Export 4,318 4,340 3,941 3,617 0.5 -9.2 -8.2
Import 9,172 10,266 9,879 9,720 11.9 -3.8 -1.6
Balance -4,854 -5,926 -5,938 -6,103 22.1 0.2 2.8
Swizerland Export 28,773 19,799 22,185 22,701 -31.2 12.1 2.3
Import 28,276 12,781 31,397 36,374 -54.8 145.7 15.9
Balance 497 7,018 -9,211 -13,673
UK Export 47,353 53,823 56,115 55,396 13.7 4.3 -1.3
Import 52,817 54,392 57,962 54,326 3.0 6.6 -6.3
Balance -5,464 -569 -1,848 1,070
Russia Export 11,137 10,753 7,087 5,798 -3.4 -34.1 -18.2
Import 27,086 23,653 16,366 14,512 -12.7 -30.8 -11.3
Balance -15,950 -12,900 -9,279 -8,714 -19.1 -28.1 -6.1