Chapter 5 History of Champa  2017-10-16

 

  General Aspect of the history of Champa

 

The original Linyi had very small population and small rice field, so they strongly intended to expand its territory to the north, and international trade with China.

Michael Vickery says in ‘Champa Revised’:

“Champa was neither a unitary polity nor even a federation, but rather consisted of several separate entities, the interrelationships among which varied from time to time (total separation, alliance, peace, hostility, trade). (M. Vickery, Vietnam, p385-6)

Michael Vickery elaborates further:

“These different Champa centers were never unified into a single state of kingdom. The far south, ancient Panduranga, including Phan Rang, perhaps Phan Thiet, and sometimes Nha Trang, was always independent of the Thu Bon valley polities. The Vijaya-Quy Nhon region was often independent of both Pandrunga and the Thu Bon, its separate character seen even in its architecture and sculpture. Each of these centers called itself ‘Champa’ in the forms Campa nagara, Campapura, Campadesa: ‘Champa country city, region.’ When the Vietnamese chronicles refer habitually to Chiem Thanh or the Chinese histories to Zhan-cheng (占城=Cham city) it is not always possible to know which Champa they meant.

 

5-1. The inscriptions of Champa

5-1-1. The oldest inscription; Vo Canh inscription

The inscriptions of Champa are in two languages, Cham and Sanskrit. The oldest inscription is considered ‘Vo Canh’, from a site near Nha Trang. It has been dated between the 2nd and 4th centuries.

Coedes’s opinion is that it belonged to Funan, that apparent chief named Sri Mara was the Funan ruler known to the Chinese as ‘Fan (Shi) Man., (范師蔓=or 范蔓)’. This inscription may not be definitely ascribed to either Funan or Champa, and certainly not to Linyi. This inscription is isolated and may not be integrated with the rest of the corpus. Basically, in the Funan times, the rulers had left few inscriptions. Funan used to be a commercial state so their leaders had not left any personal monument’.

Around the 4th century, some small states existed in the southern region, and the cultural level of them was possible to leave the epitaph of the Sanskrit.

5-1-2. Distribution of Inscriptions by M. Vickery

The first coherent group of inscriptions is linked with the early development of the Thu Bon valley, site of My Son, at time when there are only isolated texts elsewhere.

From the 5th to the late 8th centuries, there are 20 inscriptions, all in Sanskrit and all but two located in or near My Son.

Then from the mid-8th to mid-9th centuriesbetween 774 and 854-there are a coherent group of eight inscriptions in the South. Most of these are in Phan Rang but some are in Nha Trang; five of them are entirely or partly in Cham.

Following that, from 875 until 965, there are 25 inscriptions ascribed to the Indrapura/Dong Duong dynasty, a little south of Thu Bon area, and near My Son. The Buddhist city, Dong Duong prospered after the 9th century.

These inscriptions delineate a coherent area from Quang Nam to Quang Binh and include the only epigraphy in the published corpus found north of Hue. Four inscriptions of this group are in the South, and 16 are entirely or partly in Cham. One more Cham-language inscription, possibly related, is from My Son dated 991.

Thereafter inscriptions are rather equally distributed between North and South until the early thirteenth century, of which there are 32 in the South and only 6 in My Son, the last dated 1263. After 991, of the 75 known inscriptions until the last in 1456, only 5 are Sanskrit (all of them before 1263), and the rest in Cham.

 

During the mid-8th to late 9th centuries, when all the inscriptions are in the South, the Chinese record no ‘Fan () titles, and their references to Huan wang (環王) do not provide names of rulers of that polity in any form.

 

 

5-2. Three Stages of Champa History

However, the Chinese historical texts write the word of ‘Champa’ as if it were a single polity and only the name of the country separates into three steps. However, each doesn't tell the state which unifies Indochinese Peninsula.

According to the Chinese text,’ Linyi 林邑’ had sent the first mission in the 2nd century and the last mission was in 750. The reason is not explained. Next ‘Huan wang (環王)’ had sent the tribute missions to the Tang Dynasty only three times. Huan wang was not so active. The final player was ‘Champa (Chang Zheng占城, 877 - 1471)’.

But, the name of ‘Champa’ began to be used in the epitaph of the Fan Shambhuvarman at(范梵志王)the beginning of the 7th century.

Xuan Zhan玄装 in the Tang times wrote as ‘the Maha Champa (摩訶瞻婆) ‘. Yi-Jing 義浄too, used a word, ‘ Champa(占波) ‘ in  the’ Nan-hui Chi-kuei Nei-fa Chuan(南海寄帰内法伝),’in the late 7th century.

About the location of capital, it is often difficult to identify the exact place.

The original name of the country, Champa, is supposed to have been the homeland of the Indian merchant or the Brahman, being in the Indus riverside.

The cultural pre-history of Champa is known as the ‘Sa Huynh’ culture, dated between 600 BC, and early CE. The location of Sa Huynh makes a perfect geographical fit, along the Thu Bon Valley near My Son and Hoi An, with the area of Cham centers known from local epigraphy, and the period is late enough to say that Cham speakers must have been there when Sa Huynh culture flourished (Vickery, Toyo, p 62). However culturally Sa Huynh culture and Linyi culture are not necessarily lined directory, after the archaeological survey.

The role of the Cham speaking people in the Thu Bon valley is not confirmed. The Mon-Khmer people were major residents at the original Linyi area and Cham people (Austronesian) is considered to live south part of Indochina and sea-side area along the Indochina peninsula. Cham people gradually migrated from south to north.

Until 7th century, the religion of rulers was Hindu, but Buddhism came in Linyi also before the 7th century. Many Buddhism Canons were robbed by the Sui army in 605, when they attacked Linyi. The Bodhisattava Lokesvara is known in Champa but Siva was dominant religion among the rulers at that time.  The religion of Srivijaya had been Mahayana Buddhism, so which might have penetrated into Champa gradually.

In the 8th century, in Champa there appeared Bodhisattava images. In the Bakul inscription (near Pandrunga, dated 829), which records the donations of two temples to God Jina (Buddha) and Sankara (Siva) by Samanta ( local ruler).(Majumdar, p65-66).   Buddhism became the official religion later probably around the 2nd half of the 9th century under the reign of Indravarman II. His posthumous name is Paramabuddhaloka. Probably, since this period, Mahayana Buddhism started widely spread among the common people. Dong Duong is called ‘Buddhist City’.

 

5-2-1 Rinyi (林邑)

Champa history began with a polity named ‘Linyi林邑’. Linyi was first noted in the Chinese histories as having revolted against the authorities in Jiaozhou (交州) in the 2nd century A.D.

The name ‘Linyi’ disappeared from the Chinese histories after 757. Linyi was depicted as an aggressive entity constantly pressing northward against Chinese provinces what is now known Vietnam

“Latter Han Shu (後漢書)” says in 137 ADat Rinan日南district, Xiang-Lin Xian象林県a Chinese official of the region, named ‘Qu-Lin区隣’ had revolted against the governor of Xiang-Lin with thousands of mobs, and they burned down temples and killed the governor and his subordinates. The “Jin Shu (晋書)”the history of Jin dynasty, 265-420, says Qu Lian区連,after killing the governor, declared independence and called himself as ‘king’.

At first Linyi established at the mountain side of the region where had a rich gold mine, but later Linyi shifted its capital to the sea-side ‘Xitu西図‘for the convenience of maritime trade. Xitu had been populated around 2,000.

Linyi had sent the first tribute mission to the ‘Wu dynasty’ during 226-231, Funan’s first envoy was in 225.

 

M. Vickery writes that in the Linyi times during the 5th century to 774, around 20 inscriptions were found of which 19 inscriptions were at Quang Nam province, of which 12 inscriptions were at My Son, all written in Sanskrit. So, in the Linyi times the political center had existed around the Thu Bon valley, near Da Nang and Hoi An.

 

From 758, the name of Linyi disappeared from the Chronicle of the Tang Dynasty and a new epigraphy appears in the south, and there are no Chinese records of rulers, but they called ‘Huan wang環王’.

 

Huan wang’s name, believed’ came from Pandrunga (Today’s Phan Rang). However, Huan wang’s inscriptions are discovered, dated in 875 - 965 and they are mainly related with Indrapura/Dong Duong dynasty far north from Phan Rang. Perhaps, Chinese officials misunderstood that Huan wang was a new single state after Linyi, but several missions went to China from different ports.

 

Also, some of them belong to the Thu Bon area (the center of the old Linyi) and in Hue. Four are in the south.

The Cham words are used for the whole or the part in 16 inscriptions.

 

In Zhancheng占城era, since 991 to 1456, 75 inscriptions were found and they spread from the North to the South almost evenly. South has 32 and 18 inscriptions (the last is 1263) are based at My Son. Only five were written in Sanskrit, the rests were in Cham language. In the Zhancheng age, state powers had been divided into several regions. (Michael Vickery, 'Champa Revised', p363-420’).

 

The flow of the history of Champa can be understood roughly by observing the distribution of inscriptions. From the change of Sanskrit inscription into the Cham language is also notable.

 

Tra Kieu (典冲) which had been the capital and headquarters of Linyi was located in the center of the Thu Bon river mouth, near Hoi An.

 

As for Linyi, it settled at Tra Kieu in the Quan Nam province and it became the capital of Linyi. The Thu Bon River basin has the Sa Huynh culture which has ruins of Iron Age, a lot of Dongson bronze drums are discovered from within the region and, many funerary urns are unearthed from there and bronze mirrors in the Han times are discovered. However, the relation between the Sa Huynh culture and Linyi is not clear.

The ancient culture is regarded as continuing until the middle in the 1st century.

 

The material beads, such as carnelian, agate, glass beading ball seems to have been brought from India. They are discovered together with iron tools in the region. The same material of beads was discovered in the Malay Peninsula and Thailand.

 

Supposing that Indians had come in and out frequently and the activity of Indian merchants was similar as in case of Funan, their original purpose was maritime trade but some of them settled in this region.

However, the leading people of Linyi seem to have been a local people (including the Chinese). At first, the kings of Linyi were Chinese, but gradually changed to Indian and Cham people.

 

In case of Funan, the ruling class had been dominated by the Indian origin people.

Also, here is the area called ‘Amaravati’, which is famous of the Buddhism images, came from south India.

However, Linyi seems to have been expanding their territory to Quy Nyon and Binh Dinh in the southern part on the Indochinese Peninsula. Binh Dinh was called ‘Vijaya’ later.

Da Nang and Hoi An region, as the center of the trade states had the relations with the smaller states in the southern part for a long time. Then the Cham people came up to this region as seafarers and traders.

 

A lot of funerary urns were discovered from the An Bang ruins, the Hau Xa ruins in Hoi An city and iron knives and beads were also discovered.

These remains are estimated to be around the 3rd century B.C.

The gem stones and beads were uncovered from the ruins. They were imported from India.

 

Picture of Sa Huyng Museum

 

 

Rinan (日南) region had trade relation with the outside in early times and contacted the central dynasties of China.

The people of Rinan and its neighbors often sent the tributary missions to China, and the ‘barbarians of Rinan’ tributed white pheasants() and rabbits to the Latter Han Dynasty, in 37 AD.( Ts'e-fu Yuan-kuei 冊府元亀).

Also, in 84,122, 131, 159, 173, and 183 several states from near Rinan area sent tribute to China, it contributes from ‘ Jiuzhen (九真) and suburbs (徼外)’ . In 183, Rinan and suburbs sent tribute to China and thereafter their tributes were frequent.

 

The foreign merchants also came from Rinan region and India, in 166, the envoy of the Roman Emperor (Antoninus) too came with tribute in 159 and in 161.

 The Roman envoy said he came from abroad and brought tribute of several pieces of  ivories, rhino-horns and turtle-shells, but which were  products of the Southeast Asia and whether he really came from Rome was doubtful.

 

The contents of the tributary articles are usually unclear, but it is sure that the most of them were local products and trained elephants. However foreign-made goods were included among them which were brought by Indian merchants and imported from west countries.

 

In Linyi, Fan Xion (范熊) is the first king (270-80) who had the title of ‘Fan’ (). In Funan, Fan-(shi)-man范蔓 is the first king (225-230) who had ‘Fan’ title. There may be something common between Funan and Linyi. The Sui Shu (the history of the Sui) says that the titles of the state officers in Chenla (Cambodia) are the same as Linyi. So, possibly there was some political and economic relation between Funan and Linyi in the 3rd century.

R.C. Majumdar says; ‘He allied himself with the king of Funan for this purpose (extending its territory to the north) and continually ravaged the Chinese possessions in Tonkin’. (Majumdar, p22)

 

After his death, his son Fan Yi范逸280-336) succeeded him. The tribute mission was sent to Emperor Sun Quan孫権reign 226-231) of Wu () Dynasty. The tributary mission in the year Wu-di武帝of the Western Jin西晋during 268 to 284. Funan also had sent missions in 265, 268, 285, 286 and 287.

 

The man who came up from the servant, Fan Weng (范文) plotted the murder of the princes of King Fan Yi who died in 336.

"Fan Weng" (范文 336-49) was said to be a sold Chinese servant, came from Yangzhou and escaped to Linyi. After that he promoted the king’s staff and approached King Fan Yi (范逸). He often went to China following Chinese merchants and got many kinds of technological knowhow.

 

He was very tricky and killed two princes beforehand and when the king died he usurped the throne and threatened all concubines and mistress saying he will kill them who do not obey him without giving food.

He placed the nearby small states under his control and the number of resident reached 30,000 - 40,000.

He attacked Rinan, in 344 getting into his territory and he killed 5,000~6,000 people including the governor of the region. He proceeded his army to the Ngang Pass (Quang Binh) and where he claimed to be his territory, but was rejected by the governor Zhu Fan (朱藩).

 

Fan Weng stayed there for three years, but finally his army was defeated by China and he was wounded and died in 349.

 

His son, Fan Fo (范佛;349~380) succeeded him, and he was also defeated. While he sent tribute missions in 372 and 373-375, he still continued invasion. He had invaded Rinan, Jiuzhen (九真、Tain Hoa) and Jiute (九徳) but in vain, and finally he surrendered. After his death, Fan Ho-da (范胡達, 380~413) took the throne, who was probably King Fan Fo’s son, but uncertain. He was killed by the governor of Jiaozhou (交州), Du Hui Duo 杜慧度).

 

 The capital of Linyi at that time, was located at Tra Khieu near the sanctuary of My Son with the good harbors such as Da Nang and Hoi An. From Tra Khieu to My Son is about 20km.

 

Srisanabhadresvara, to deify Siva is built in My Son and the builder was considered Bhadravarman. He is supposed to be King ‘Fan Hu 范胡, 380-413 ) ’ , son of Fan Fo (范佛).  All of the inscriptions erected by King Bhadravarman exist in the Thu-Bon valley. His activity seems limited around the Thu Bon valley. Bhadravarman installed a Siva-linga in a temple and called it, after his name, Siva-Bhadresvara, which is an epitaph of the first Sanskrit. Furthermore, Bhadravaman has a tytle of ‘varman’ which is generally speaking attached to a ‘Ksatria’ class.

 Apparently he is a different type of king, who first introduced Sivaism. Some historians say that Bhadravarman is said to come from Funan, or at least an Indian origin.

His name ‘Hu ()’ means ‘Western foreigner’ in Chinese script, so there is possibility he comes from other country, for instance India or Funan. His wife is an Indian origin, a Hinduist, and she tried to go to the Ganges after King Fan Hu’s death with her second son.

Dr. Rokuro Kuwata supposes that Indianization of Linyi started since this king (Kuwata, p349).

At the My Son sanctuary, the mausoleums of many kings from Bhadravaraman to the king of 14th century were built.

The wooden built temples in My Son were burned down, by the fire in the 7th century but they were reconstructed by King Fan Zhi (梵志) ( 577-629 ).

It is carved in the epitaph as the Sambhu-Bhadresvara. Sambhuvarman is Fan Zhi (梵志) himself.

 

The Liang Shu (梁書) says that after King Hu Da (胡達), his son Di Zhen (敵真) succeeded him. M. Vickery agrees this description of the Liang Shu and adds that Fan Yang Mai (范陽邁) I took throne 421, and his son Yan May II succeeded his father in 425~46.

 

M. Vickery says:

”The name-title Di/Dich (Di Zhen敵眞) is entirely outside the Linyi tradition as recorded by the Chinese, and their report that Di Zhen/Dich Chan abdicated and went on a pilgrimage to Ganges in India following his mother. He is called the first king of the ‘Gangaraja Dynasty’, in My Son inscription (C96). Dich Chan was from the Thu Bon valley, probably Xitu (西図), and this is the earliest clear correspondence between a king known from Chinese sources and a ruler listed in epigraphy from the Thu Bon valley“.

The wooden building of the temples was burned down, suffering from the fire in the 7th century but temples in My Son were reconstructed by King Fan Shi(梵志) (reigned, 577-629)

 

5-3 Tributes of Linyi until the Tang Times

Wu Dynastyonce during 226-231.

West Jin Dynasty(西晋in 268 and 284, each.

East Jin Dynasty東晋 :317420

Fan Weng (范文) sent envoys 2 times, in 340 brought trained elephants and in 372.

Fan Fo范佛 sent missions during 373-375 and in 377 two times.

 

Fan Hu Du范胡達 sent mission in 382.

Linyi sent mission during 405418 (in 414 and 417).

 

Liu, South Song劉氏南宋 :420479

King Fan Yang Mai (陽邁) I421425?)sent mission in 421. At the same time he invaded Rinan and Jiuzhen (九眞in 424. Fan Yang Mai II invaded in Jiuzhen again in 431 with 100 boats. The Song Dynasty counter attacked with 3,000 soldiers but could not defeat Linyi and retreated. Linyi asked Funan for support, but Funan refused.

 

Linyi continued tributes, but Emperor Wen Di (文帝) finally got angry and in 446 dispatched General Long Xian (龍驤将軍) and ordered Tan-he-zhi (檀和之) Governor of Jiaozhou (交州) to conquer Linyi.

 

 However, Yang Mai (陽邁)II demanded 10,000 Jin () gold and 100,000 Jin silver but the South Song Court rejected his demand and Song sent strong army to crush Linyi and occupied Linyi’s capital in 446. Yang Mai II fled away and disappeared from the history.

The South Song army got huge amount of gold. Linyi’s damage was tremendous.

 

Linyi assigned new King Fan Shen Cheng (神成454-80?)who was gentle and obedient to the Song (Liu). His ambassador Fan Long Ba (范龍跋) was assigned to General Yang Wu (揚武将軍) by the Song (Liu) Court.

 

Yang Mai I sent tribute in 421 and Yang May II sent tributes often in 430, 433, 435, 438, 439 and 441, but the South Song Court had not appreciated the tributes, because they were poor and nominal. After the defeat, new King Shen Cheng (神成) sent envoy in 455, 458 and 472.

 

(The tributary missions during the South Ji and the Sui Dynasty from Linyi.)

 

South (Nan) Ji times (南斉 :479502

After King Fan Shen Cheng, Linyi was in political confusion, and after all a foreigner Fan Dang Gen Chun(范當根純) took the throne in 484. He said himself , a prince of Funan, but actually he was an Indian slave of Brhaman Nagasena (那伽仙).

 

Fan Dang Gen Chun sent tribute in 491. However a former royal family killed him, and Fan Zhu Nong (范諸農491498) ascended the throne, who was supposed a son of Yang Mai II. In 498, King Fan Zhu Nong went himslf to tribute to the Nan-Ji court, but on the way, he was drowned. His son Fan Wen Huan (文欵) succeeded him. He was assigned to the General of An-Nan (安南将軍) and King of Linyi.

The South Jin Shu (南斉書) describes that Linyi was located at its distance of 3,000li (1,200Km), south of Jiaozhou (交州), and Linyi was south of Jiuzhen 九眞. Since the ‘Shin () times’, it was called ‘Linyi’ province.

 

(About successions of kings, Chinese texts made confusion)

About the linage of Linyi kings, between the Liang Shu and the South Ji Shu, there are some difference. I need not go into detail here about both documents. I write down the conclusion here.

Fan Hu-ta胡達Di-Chen敵真(the first King of Gangaraja)Wen-Di文敵Yang-Mai 1陽邁 1stYang Mai II陽邁2ndShen Cheng范神成・・Dang Gen Chun當根純Indian, from Funan・・Zhu Nong諸農Wen Huan文欵 Wen-Zan文賛) Tien-Kai=Devavarman天凱Vijayavarman弼毳跋摩Ku Sri Vijayavarman高式勝鎧Ku Sri Rudravarman I 高式律陀羅跋摩Sambhuvarman范梵志 Tou LiKandarvarman頭黎 Zhen LongPrakasadharma鎮龍, who was killed by his subordinate Mahamantradhikrta (摩訶慢多伽獨).

 

Fan Hu Ta (胡達) was killed in 413 by Jiaozhou Governor Tu-kei-du交州刺史杜慧度. His son Di-Chen (敵真) succeeded him. He is later called King Gangaraja. But his younger brother Di Kai (敵鎧) fled to India with his mother, fearing killed by his elder brother (King Di-Chen). King Di-Chen also wanted to follow his mother, abandoning the throne to his nephew Manorathavarman, but his minister Zang Ling (藏麟opposed King Di-Chen’s intention. His nephew got angry and killed the minister. But the nephew was also killed by the son of the minister.

 

Finally one of brothers of Di Kai , Wen Di (文敵) succeeded the throne. What happened to King Wen Di is not known, and Yan Mai I (陽邁) took the throne in 421. He was aggressive and invaded Rinan, but defeated and his son Yan Mai II succeeded him. He was also defeated and disappeared from the history.

 

Nan Ji times,南斉 (479502AD)

 

Linyi sent only two tributes to the Nan Ji in 491and 498.

 

The Nan Ji Shu (南斉書) recorded that after 472 (The Liu, South Song), in the Nan Ji time, King Fan Wen Zan (范文贊) sent missions to Nan Ji in 491 and 498. Nan Ji  accepted Fan Dang-gen-chun當根純Proclaimed himself a prince of Funan and took over the throne of Linyi, because as a king of Linyi, his performance was not so bad. But a descendant of the royal family of Linyi (probably a grandson of Yang Mai II), Fan Chu Nong (諸農) killed him and took the throne in 492. The Nan Ji Court assigned him to ‘An Nan (安南) General and the King of Linyi’.

 

But unfortunately, King Fan Chu Nong drowned on his way, leading the tribute mission to Nan Ji in 498. His son Fan Wen Huan(范文欵) succeeded him and was given the same title as his father.

 

Liang times(502557A.D.)

 

During the Liang times, Linyi sent 9 missions, Funan sent 10 and Ban Ban sent 9 to China. Actually, Ban Ban was a subordinate state of Funan.

 

R.C. Majumdar says “Some important information about Rudravarman is obtained from inscription (No.7). Rudravarman belonged to the Brahma-Ksatriya family, during his reign, the famous temple of Mahadeva, called Bhadresvarasvami after its builder the King Bhadravarman was burnt by fire. Rudravarman is identified with Ku Sri Rudravarman (高式律陀羅跋摩mentioned in the Chinese annals who sought for his investiture from the Chinese Emperor in 529, and renewed the tribute again in 534.”

 

About this time the Chinese province of Jiaozhou (交州) had revolted and thrown off the imperial yoke under the leadership of Ly Bon (李賁).

 

Rudravarman proceeded his army to the north, but was defeated by Ly Bon in 541.

Rudravarman was succeeded by his son Prasastadharma who took the name Sambhuvarman范梵志王at the time of his coronation. He is the author of the inscription No.7. He re-established the temple of Bhadravarman which was burnt at the time of his father, and re-named the image as Sambhu-Bhadresvara, thus adding his name to the original founder. He also gave the endowments to the temple of Bhadravarman. The two embassies sent to China in 568 and 572, probably belonged to his time. (R.C.Majumdar p 36, 37).

 

Linyi had sent tribute in 502,510,512,514,526,527,529,534 and 542.

 

The Sui time(581618A.D.)

 

Linyi sent tribute envoy to Sui in 595. Afterward, during the Sui Dynasty, Linyi was heavily invaded by General Liu Fang (劉方of Sui.

 

The war continued during 604-605, and the Sui army occupied Tra Kieu, the capital of Linyi.

 

King Sambhuvarman,, son of Rudravarman fought against the Sui army, with elephants, but General Liu Fang (劉方dug holes against advancing elephants and he got victory. Liu Fang occupied Tra Kieu and got the 18 pieces of gold plates memories of Linyi’s kings and destroyed then to make gold ingot. King Sambhuvarman fled to Quy Nhon and change the name of Linyi to Huan wang (環王) for a short term. The Sui army returned to China after victory and Sambhuvarman recovered the occupied territory. Sambhuvarman sent an ambassador to the Sui Court to ask for ‘pardon’.

 

He had reconstructed the sanctuary of My Son, and in the inscription he used the name of ‘King of Champa’ for the first time.

 

Tang time() (618-907)

 

To the Tang Dynasty, Linyi had sent many envoys. In the seventh century Linyi sent 18 missions including 2 times of Huan wang (環王). In the 8th century until 750, Linyi sent 18 times tributes. After 758, the name of Linyi disappeared from the Chinese chronicles. The reason is not explained. However, the attack of Sailendra (Srivijaya group) had strong relation. The inscriptions of Champa recorded the attack of ‘Java’ navy in 774. But actually Sailedra probably attacked Linyi (north) and destroyed its merchant ship around 760. 

 

Shumbuvarman (范梵志) who fought against the Sui invasion, survived until 629, and his son Kandrapadharm (頭黎) succeeded him. Sambhuvarman was very clever king and he kept good relations with Angkor and Chenla King Mahendravarman (Chitrasena).

 

On the other hand Huan wang (環王)sent tribute 2 times, during 618-626 and 629-649. At that time Huan wang seems to have located at South (probably Panduranga and Nha Trang). The inscriptions of Huan wang were mostly discovered around Nha Trang, north of Panduranga.

 

The contents of Linyi’s tributes were in many cases not clear. However, elephants were clearly recorded in the Chinese texts as following. In 628, Linyi presented tamed rhinoceros. In 631, King Kandarpadharma (頭黎Fan Tou Li) sent a crystal ball of chicken egg size which can make fire using sun-shine and parrot with five color feather. In 640, Linyi presented rhinoceros and jewelry. In 654, King Zhu Ge De (諸葛地) Prakasadharma-Vikratavarman presented trained elephants. In 686 and 691, Linyi presented trained elephants and 695, war elephants, and 699 and 707 trained elephants. In 709 Linyi presented a white elephant. In 713, King Vikarantavarman presented 5 trained elephants. In 731, Linyi presented 4 elephants and 735, presented trained elephants and a white elephant. In 748 Linyi presented ivories and colorful felt sheets. In 749 Linyi presented special delicious food, black agila wood (沉香) incense and 10 bright white felt sheets. In other missions, they brought various kind of tributes which were not specified. They were in square boxes containing many kind of local products (incenses).

 

During the Tang times, Linyi could not have imported west goods so easily, Linyi must have presented mainly elephants and other local products. Later after the 10th century, Arab merchants came to Champa and made trade agreement with Champa, which presented frankincense (乳香) in 965 to the Song Court for the first time.

 

M. Vickery says “The predominance of My Son and Tra Kieu among the Champa centers from the time of the first epigraphic and architectural remains came to an apparent sudden end in mid eighth century when new epigraphy and architecture began in Nha Trang and Phan Rang (Panduranga) and there was no more of either in My Son for a century. (M. Vickery, Short History of Champa, p49) The reason is not clarified, but perhaps, Linyi was attacked by Srivijaya (Sailendra) navy around 760 and their base of politicy and trade were completely destroyed by Srivilaya.

 

M. Vickery adds more that the shift in relative importance of the two areas (Nha Trang and Phan Rang) was no doubt related to a change in the international trade routes linking the Cham ports to China, Nusantara and India.

But this is not the decisive reason of the change of trade route. However, the change of the trade route is not positive reason. As above mentioned, Linyi ports were attacked by ‘Sailendra navy’ and Linyi had probably lost their fleet to trade. The same thing had happened at the Nha Trang 10 years later.

 

On the other hand, Huan wang which located in the south-central part of Champa (Nha Trang and Panduranga), sent tribute two times, during 618-626 and 629-649. The royalty of Linyi was moving the capital city to Panduranga (Phan Rang) temporarily. Or a new political power emerged at Panduranga area. This Huan wang is an independent state different from ‘Linyi’.

However, Linyi had dominated the Amaravati region and the My-Son was its sanctuary.The capital separates into the north (Tra Kieu and Dong Duong) and the south (Nha Trang and Panduranga).

 

In 877, in the Tang Court, it officially unified a name, to Champa(占城) from Huan wang.  However, actually the name of Champa (占城), had been used in Tang since the 7th century. As above mentioned in the the 7th century Xuan Zhan玄装wrote as ‘ the Maha Champa (摩訶瞻婆) ‘. and Yi-Jing 義浄 too, used a word, ‘ Champa(占波).

 

At the court of Linyi, after Shabuvarman, his son Kandarpadharma (頭黎Fan Tou Li) succeeded him. However his successor Prabhasadharma (鎮龍 Zhen Long ) and all of his family were killed by his subordinate, Mahamantradhikrta (摩訶慢多伽獨) in 645.

 

The male descendants of the Fan () family were extinguished with the king. However, the usurper was also killed. Then the people raised a Brhaman, a son-in-law of king Fan Tou Li the throne. He was replaced by the daughter of King Fan Tou Li. However, she was unable to restore order, so they summoned from Cambodia, Zhu Ge De (諸葛地), son of the paternal aunt of Fan Tou Li, who is also grandson of Isanavarman, Chenla King. He married a daughter of Fan Tou Li and was proclaimed the king of Linyi and called Prakasadharma (迦含波摩653-687?). He is also called as Prakasadharma-Vikratavarman and that he believed in Vishnu god as well as Siva. (Briggs, p52)

At this time, the relation of both countries (Chenla and Linyi) was friendly. Isanavarman (611-635?) sent the envoy to Tang in 628 with Linyi but Chenla could not have used the marine-route so many times. The political good relation between Chenla and Linyi had not lasted long time.

 

Prakasadharma-Vikratavarman sent tribute to Tang in 653 and 669. However, the political influence of Chenla over Linyi seems not so strong and fade away.

 

R.C.Majumdar says that the latest known date of Prakasadharma is 687 and the earliest date of Vikarantavarman II is 713. Naravahanavarma’s reign, therefore falls between these dates. We hardly know about his reign. Vikrantavarman II established an image of Laksmi in the year 731. (Majumdar, p46). Rudravarman sent the last envoy as a king of Linyi in 750.

 

After him all the inscriptions of the new dynasty exist at the Kauthara region (Nha Trang) in the south. However, rulers of Kauthara seem to have suzerainty over the entire former Linyi kingdom (Majumdar, p49). The founder of this dynasty is named Prthivindravarman. The inscription (No.24) says that he enjoyed the lands by having conquered all his enemies by his own power. But the Java (Srivijaya group) navy might have destroyed Linyi’s major trading ships before his accession.

 

The Chinese history also contains reference to a raid as early as 767. Prthivindravarman probably survived until 774. His successor is Satyavarman, nephew of Prthindravarman. He left the inscription (No.22), and by the Glai Lamow inscription (No.24) we know about his younger brother Indravarman I, and of his sister’s son King Vikrantavarman III (No.29) (R.C. Majumdar, p50).

 

Majumdar continues that in 774, the Javanese, ‘vicious cannibals coming from other countries (Malay Peninsula) by means of ships’ -burnt this temple and carried away the image together with all the properties of the temple. King Satyavarma pursued these marauders in his own ships and inflicted a crushing defeat upon them. But the object of the pursuit was not fully realized and Satyavarman was very much dejected to learn that the Sivamukha, together with its property which was in the empty ships, was thrown into water, and that Sivalinga was destroyed (No.22). The ‘victorious king’, unable to recover the old images, installed a new Sivamukhalinga, together with images of other deities, in 784, and gave rich endowments to the God. For this reason, he came to be regarded as the second Vicitrasagara or an incarnation of that king.

 

These are the description of the inscriptions of Cham side. However, what is the reality? As the result, the ‘Jawa’ navy (Srivijaya group) had attacked Po-Nagar area and destroyed their merchant ships first and robbed Cham property and burned temples and they retreated as scheduled. Siva linga was abandoned into the seawater, because the Srivijaya people were Mahayana Buddhists and they did not pay respect to the symbol of Sivaism.

 

King Satyavarman’s reign was not so long after 784, and he was succeeded by his younger brother Indravarman I. He is the author of the Yang Tikuh and Glai Lamow Inscription (Nos.23 and 24) in which his glory is sung in most extravagant terms (Majumdar, p51).

 

Srivijaya group had never cared about Champa after the destruction of shipping facilities at Nha Trang and Panduranga. However, before this incident, Srivijaya group might have attacked My Son area, so Linyi could not send envoy to Tang after 750.

 

5-4 Dong Duong Dynasty (Bhrgu Family).

After the dynasty near Panduranga and Nha Trang, in the 9th century a new dyanasty appeared near Dong Duong which is called the Buddhism Dynasty. Dong Duong city is near My-Son, nearly 20km apart.

 

However, ’Dong Duong’ kingdom had sent only one mission to Tang, so this kingdom had little records in the Chinese text.

 

An inscription dated 875 is left by Indravarman II, which writes that from the son (or family) of Paramesvara was born Uroja, the legendary king of the world.

 

Indravarman II is known he had introduced Mahayana Buddhism to Champa.

The epitaph of Indravarman II dated in 875 was discovered from Dong Duong (called a Buddhism city). Indravarman II was a great king, who was called the king of kings (Maharaja).

‘The Goddess of Mercy’ belief is one by the popularization and the name of 'Lokesvara' can be seen in the name of 'Laksmindra Lokesvara Svabhayada' there.

The last verse is echoed again in a prose passage Sri Jaya Indravarman Maharajadiraja became the King of Champa by virtue of peculiar merits accruing from austerities of many previous births. (Ins. p.87)

 

Indravarman II must have enjoyed a long and peaceful reign between 854, the date of Vikrantavarman III, and 898 the earliest date of his successor.

So far as we know he sent only a single embassy to China in 877 as he had nothing to fear from that quarter on account of its internal conditions. Indravarman II seems to have been succeeded by Jaya Sinhavarman (895-904). The relationship between the two kings is not definitely known. The Dong Duong inscription (No.36), however says the mother of Jaya Sinhavarman had a younger sister Pov ku lyan Sri Rajakula, also known as Haradevi. Haradevi’s husband was Sri Parama-Bhuddhaloka, and she installed Sri Indraparamosvara for the sake of religious merit of her own husband. This might be taken to imply that the coronation-name of her husband was Indravarman, as the name of the gods is often formed by the addition of the name of the king. It may be held therefore that Haradevi was the queen of Indravarman II.

 

From Indravarman II was born the fortunate and intelligent Dharmaraja, Sri Rudravarman. The son of the latter was far-famed King Sri Bhadravarma. The son of Sri Bhadravarma (III), known as Sri Indravarman (III), had become the king of Champa through the grace of Mahesvara (Siva God). Thus, the sovereignty of the king was transmitted in this entirety from those kings. It was not given by the grandfather or the father. By the special merit of the authorities, and by the virtue of his pure intelligence, he gained (the kingdom), not from his grandfather or father. (No.31, A18-22)

 

According to this view, Shimhavarman would be the son of the elder sister of Indravarman’s queen, and Indravarman would have the epithet of Parama-Bhuddaloka.

 

The founder of this family, Sarthavaha, was a nephew of Rudravarman III, the first king of the dynasty, and a brother of the principal queen of Indravarman II. (Majumdar, p64)

 

Bhadravarman III must have a short reign (905-911). His known dates are 909 or 911. His reign, therefore, falls between this date and 903 the last date of Jaya Sinhavarman. At one king intervened between the two he did not probably reign for more than a period of five years, 905 to 910. During Jaya Sinhavarman’s reign, Pilih Rajadvarah was sent to Yavadvipa as an ambassador. His mission was very successful. In this case, Yabadvipa was the early stage of ‘San-fo-chi’.

 

Bhadravarman III was succeeded by his son Indravarman III (911-959). His literary accomplishments are described in the Po-Nagar inscription (No.45). (Majumdar p65). Inspite of obvious exaggerations, the king must be taken to have been a remarkable scholar in his date.

 

In the inscription of Nhan-Bieu of Indravarman III, dated 911 (No.43), there is description that King Sri Jayasinhavarman sent a diplomatic mission to Yavadvipa (Malay Peninsula, Srivijaya) headed by Pov Klun Pilih Rajadvarah. After this mission the relation between San-fo-chi and Champa became familiar. San-fo-chi got the friendly intermediary port in Champa.  Pilih Rajadvarah is close relative of the king and continues to occupy a high position.

The development of the relation of both kingdoms was not recorded in any document, but San-fo-chi must have helped Champa strongly. Later Champa had established ‘Vijaya kingdom’ at the end of the 10th century.

 

A stele dated 918 by the Cham King Indravarman III states an order to build a gold statue of the goddess Bhagavati. According to the Po Nagar inscription (No.47), the gold image installed by Indravarman III was carried away by Angkor King Rajendravarman II in 950, and Jaya Indravarman III replaced the lost statue with a new stone one in 965.

This event tells us, the Dong Duong Dynasty had dominated Nha Trang in the 10th century, even though its capital was located at Dong Duong.

 

After collapse of the Tang Dynasty in 907, Champa King, Sri Indravarman III (釈利因徳漫) sent tributary envoy, led by Abu Hasan (甫訶散) to Latter Zhou (後周) in 958.

From Latter Zhou (951-960), General 趙匡胤Zao Kuangyin(Emperor Taizu,太祖960-976) took the throne and founded the Song Dynasty in 960. He was succeeded by his younger brother趙匡義.Zao Kuangyi (Emperor Taizong,太宗 976-997).

 

R.C. Majumdar says that Indravarman III enjoyed a long term reign of more than sixty years during 911 and 972 A.D. But there is a different opinion that Indravarman III died in 959, and Jaya Indravarman I (釈利因陀盤) succeeded the throne959-972. He sent the ambassador Abu Hasan to the Song Dynasty in 960.

The Song Dynasty started in 960; (North Song 960-1126, South Song 1127-1279)

 

In any case, the Song Shi(宋史) recognizes that Zhan-cheng占城 was situated near Da Nang and Hoi An, and put Panduranga under control in the south. Champa had been separated several by area from north to south.

 

For a century, after the death of Indravarman III, the history of Champa is obscure. because there is no inscription, so we must depend upon the Chinese chronicle and Annam text. From the north, Annam started invasion to Champa and Champa had to remove its capital to the southern area.

 

Majumdar says:

“Indravarman III seems to have been succeeded by a king whose name is differently spelt in Chinese histories and may be taken to Paramesvavarman (972-982). He sent embassies to China in 972, 973, 974, 976, 977 and 979. But he was soon involved in a quarrel with the Annamites which brought upon himself and kingdom.” Probably Dong Duong might be occupied and Annamite king(general) Liu Ji-Zong (劉継宗 ,killed in 988) usurped the throne.

 

The Song Shi recorded Champa’s missions as follows:

 

In 960, Champa sent an embassy.

In 961, Sri Indravarman 釈利因陀盤=Sri Jaya Indravarman I sent the ambassador Abu Hasan (甫訶散) with the official letter with many gifts (including, rhinoceros horns, ivories, incense, peacocks and big Arabic glass bottles). The Emperor of Song awarded them plenty.

 

In 962, Champa tributed 22 pieces ivory and 1,000 Jin () of frankincense (乳香). Arabic frankincense is the most favored by Chinese.

 

In 966, King Indravarman (釈利因陀盤) sent ambassador, accompanying queen and prince.

 

In 967, 968, 970 Champa sent envoys to Song.

 

In 971, King Sri Jaya Indravarman I(悉利多盤)Viceroy Ali-Nou ( ), queen and prince visited the Song Court.

 

In 972, King Paramesvara Indravarman I (波美税褐印茶) sent ambassador Abu Hasan (甫訶散).

 

In 973, King Sri Jaya Indravarman I(悉利盤陀印茶) sent ambassador .

 

In 974, King Paramesvara Indravarman I (波利税褐茶) sent tribute (peacock umbrella 2 and 40 Jin of West Indian Iron bar).

 

In 976, Champa sent envoys (without king‘s name).

 

In 977, King Paramesvara Indravarman I (波利税陽布印茶).

 

In 978, 979, 982, 983, Champa sent envoys (without king’s name)

 

In 985, Sri IndravarmanIV(施利陀般呉日歓) sent ambassador, Brahman Jin-ge-ma (金歌麻).He appealed to the Emperor that Chiazhou (交州invades Champa. In 986, King Liu Ji-Zong(劉継宗) sent ambassador with various presents (rhino-horns, ivories, incense). Bur he was killed in 988 possibly by Cham people. Soon after his death, Champa probably changed its capital to Vijaya (Quy Nhon).

 

King Liu Ji-Zong is an Annam general, so he might have usurped the throne of the Dong Duong dynasty, around 982.

 

R.C.Majumdar explains these situations as follows:

 

“The downfall of the Tang Dynasty in 907 was followed by a period of anarchy. The Annam took full advantage of this situation and freed themselves from the iron yoke of the Chinese. The first independent royal Annam dynasty was founded by Ngo Quyen in 939. By 965 twelve important chiefs had partitioned their country. In 968 Dinh Bo Linh defeated the twelve chiefs and proclaimed himself emperor. He ruled for 12 years but was murdered in 979.

Ngo Nhut Khanh, one of the twelve chiefs defeated by the emperor, had taken refuge in the Court of Champa. As soon as news of the emperor’s death reached him he planned to seize the throne and asked for the aid of Paramesvavarman. The latter readily consented and led a naval expedition to Tonkin in person. The Cham fleet made good progress and reached within a few miles of the capital, but storm destroyed his navy.”

 

Le Hoan (黎桓941-1005) was elected by Annam chiefs as their emperor in 980. He opposed a Chinese expedition sent by the Emperor Kuang -yi (光義). He sent an ambassador to Paramesvavarman, but the latter imprisoned him. Le Hoan was furious and led an expedition against Champa. Paramesvavarman was defeated and killed in 982, and Le Hoan marched towards capital.

 

A new king was set up, but he could not compete Le Hon and retreated to the South in 982. The new king was recorded as Indrvarman IV (982-983).

 

Le Hoan, the first emperor of the Early Le Dynasty, succeeding Dinh Dynasty as the ruler of Annam.

 

The new Vijaya kingdom had sent the first mission to China in 990. Apparently Champa change its capital from Dong Duong to Vijaya (Quy Nhon) after King Liu Ji-Zong (劉継宗) was killed in 988.

In 990, King Vijaya Sri Harivarman II (楊陀拝), sent mission led by the first ambassador Ali Sin (李臻), 2nd ambassador was Abu Hasan (甫訶散) with tributes (rhino-horns, ivories, wax, various incense, cardamom, perfume etc).

 

A stele dated 1050 says that offerings of land, slaves, jewelry, and precious metal statue was made by Jaya Parameshvaravarman I (972-982). Paramabhodisattava(1081-1086) made rich offerings in 1084 after reuniting the country, who had the political base at Thu Bon area.

 

Champa (占城、Zancheng) was at first located at Indrapura and moved to Dong Duong (Buddha city ) , south of Hoi An, but being occupied by Le Hoan (黎桓) of Annam. The Annam general Liu Ji-Zong (劉継宗) rebelled against Le Hoan and usurped the throne of Champa. Le Hoan advanced his army to punish Liu Ji-Zong, but failed. However, Liu Ji-Zong was killed in 988 probably by Cham hero appeared at Vijaya. During this confusion Champa removed their capital to Quy Nhon (Vijaya) area and in 989 Champa fixed Vijaya as it capital.

 



5-5 Vijaya Kingdom

 

The first king is Sri Harivarman II (楊陀排,988 -998 ) who sent the first envoy from Vijaya in 990. His ambassador explained to the Song Court that King Sri Harivarman II set up the new throne at Vijaya (Binh-Dinh). The origin of ‘Vijaya’ is unknown, but it might have some relation with Srivijaya (San-fo-chi).

 

Shortly after his accession, Harivarman II found his territory again ravaged by Le Hoan. He sent an embassy to the Song Court with rich tribute and complained about the conduct of Le Hoan. And the Emperor commanded Le Hoan to stay within his territory. Champa did not help Annam rebel against Le Hoan, so he appreciated friendship of Champa king and released many Cham prisoners in 992. During the same year the Song Emperor sent a rich present to Harivarman II, who was glad and sent in return an envoy with plenty of tribute.

 

Until being destroyed by Annam in the second half of the 15th century, Vijaya had survived., sometimes under the control of Angkor. However, kings of ‘Vijaya’ kept contact with Indrapura area and left some inscriptions there. Vijaya had been strong as the trade center of Champa.

 

In December 990, a new King Harivarman II (楊陀排) sent tribute mission, who self- claimed new king of Vijaya state. But where was the Vijaya state? The Vijaya (Binh Dhin) theory is popular, but M. Vickery doubts about it. (M. Vickery, p386)

 

M.Vickery says: ‘Vijaya’ has been misunderstood as both a name and a location, leading to erroneous interpretations in the historical narrative. The name Vijaya in all modern literature on Champa is conventionally understood as the old Champa center in Binh Dinh near the modern city of Quy Nhon. ‘William Southworth’ has most strongly and correctly insisted that ‘Champa’ was neither a unitary polity nor even a federation, but rather consisted of several separate entities, the interrelationship among which varied from time to time (total separation, alliance, peace, hostility and trade).

 

He has asserted firmly that the earliest surviving reference to Vijaya is in an interpretation (C101), probably dating to c.1135-1184, and that its application to the earlier periods in the academic literature should therefore be considered an historical anachronism. (Vickery, p386).

 

M. Vickery adds that the few inscriptions found in Binh-Dinh are not of much help (M.Vickery, p387).

 

However we cannot ignore the description of the Song Si (宋史).

 

 「淳化元年,新王楊陀排自稱新坐佛逝國, 楊陀排遣使李臻貢馴犀方物,表訴為交州國中人所攻,民財皆為寶所略。」

 

The new king, Sri Harivarman II (楊陀排,988 -998 ) sent the first envoy in 990. His ambassador explained to the Song Court that King Sri Harivarman II set up the new throne at Vijaya.

 

Apparently ‘Vijaya’ was set up earlier than in 990, even though the location is not mentioned at that time. The problem is why new state was set up at Vijaya. It is natural to think that Champa in Indrapura district was removed to the south to avoid direct attack of Annam troops.

 

Apparently the word ‘Fo-shi=佛逝’ means ‘Vijaya’. Srivijaya is ‘Shi-li-fo-shi=室利佛逝’, so there may be some relation between the names of the two polities. However, we cannot solve this problem now. M. Vickery apparently ignores this text.

 

Vijaya was connected with Binh-Dinh area. I suppose Champa had two capitals. One was at the north such as Dong-Duong, and another was at Binh-Dinh and usually the king had stayed Binh-Dinh for the security reason.

 

M. Vickery wants to say it was ‘Dong-Duong (Buddha city). Later in the middle of the 12th century, Jayavaman VII said to have stayed at Vijaya, he might have no reason to stay at Dong-Duong where was too far from Angkor. Jayavarman VII constructed ‘royal road’ to Binh-Dinh at the end of his reign.

 

It is recorded that King Jayavarman V of Angkor had sent army to Champa. There was Harivarman IV, who left his inscription at My Son, dated 1081.

He has re-established the edifices and city of Champa, during the troublesome days of the war…and seeing Srisanabhadresvara despoiled of all his possessions at the end of war, he came to worship the god with a pious heart.

Siva cult had been practiced in the My Son Sanctuary between the 8th and the 12/13th centuries.

Vijaya is conventionally understood as the old Champa center in the Binh Dinh district near the modern city of Quy Nhon.

 

Vijaya continued tribute to Song as following;

 

 In March 997, Champa King Harivarman II Yan Pu Ku Vijaya Sri楊甫恭毘施離 ) sent an ambassador to Song. The ambassador explained that his king was Yan Pu Ku Vijaya Harivarman (盈卜皮紫訶哩援焉).

 

In February 999, Harivarman II(楊普倶毘茶逸施離Yan Pu Ku Vijaya Sri), sent an envoy to the Song Court again, with tributes (rhino-horn, ivory, turtle-shell and incense).

 

In September 1004, King Harivarman II(楊甫毘茶逸施離)sent an envoy.

 

In 1005, Champa sent tribute to Song.

 

In 1007, King Harivarman II楊普倶毘茶室離 sent an envoy together with Ta-shi (Arab countries, 大食) to Song. Arab merchants started to use Champa as trade partners. Thereafter, Champa can tribute large volume of ‘frankincense’ to the Song Court. Formerly Frankincense (乳香) had been almost monopolized by San-fo-chi (三仏斉) from Southeast Asia. San-fo-chi purchased frankincense from Arab countries, which was the most important tributary item to Song.

 

In 1008, Ta-shi and Champa sent tributes together to Song.

 

In April 1009, Champa sent an envoy. (宋会要

 

In April 1010, King Sri Harivarmadeva (施離霞離鼻麻底 Harivarman II) sent an envoy. Dr. Naojiro Sugimoto interprets that施離=Sri, 霞離=Hari、鼻麻底=Varmadeva, so this king is Sri Harivarman II.

 

In 1011, Champa King Harivarman II( 楊普毘茶室離Yan Pu Ku Sri Harivarman) presented to the Song Court lions with two native persons who take care of them. The Emperor pitied lions and let them come back with sufficient food. Other presents are ivory, rhino-horn, turtle-shell, incense, clove, cardamom, etc.

 

In February and May 1015, Champa sent an ambassador with many presents including frankincense.

 

In 1018, Champa King Sri Harivarman II(尸嘿排摩) sent an envoy with tributes (ivories 72, rhino-horns 86, turtle-shells 1000 Jin(), frankincense 50 Jin, clove 80 Jin, cardamom 65 Jin etc.

 

In May 1029, Champa sent an ambassador. (The Song Hui Yao, 宋会要)

 

In October 1030, Champa King Yan Pu Sri Vikantavarman (陽補孤施離皮蘭德加拔麻疊) sent an ambassador with tribute of incense, turtle-shell, frankincense, ivory, rhino-horn.

 

In November 1042, Champa King Yan Pu Sri Jaya Sinhavarman II (刑卜施離値星霞弗)sent an envoy, and presented 3 trained elephants, ivory, rhino-horn, incense etc.

 

In January 1044, Le Tai Song(李太宗)of Vietnam invaded Champa and battles took place at Hue and Da Nang. Champa was defeated in every battle, and Vietnam army occupied Dong Duong after 7 months’ battle. Champa king (probably Yan Pu Sri Jaya Shimhavarman II) was killed and 5,000 Chams were captured together with palace women.

 

However, M. Vickery says,

“The period from the war of 1044 to the war of 1069, which Maspero---on the basis of one Vietnamese source but not the official chronicles---called another attack on Vijaya, is perhaps the most fictionalized segment of his story. (M. Vickery, Vietnam, p 390)

 

In January 1050, Champa King (倶舍波微收羅婆麻提楊卜=Ku Sri Paramesvarmadeva Yang Pu) sent an envoy to Song with 201 ivories and 79 rhino-horns and presented official letter.

 

In April 1053, Champa King sent an envoy to Song, with presents (168 ivories, 20 rhino-horns, 60 Jin turtle-shell and many volume and many kinds of incense).

 

In November 1054, Champa sent tribute of elephants and rhinoceroses.

In March 1056, Champa sent tribute. In the same year, Sri Yuvaraja Mahasenapati said to have attacked Sumbhupura, one of big cities in Angkor. This story is recorded in the inscription of My Son, but Angkor side said nothing about this. Sambhupura was the old capital of the former ‘Land Chenla’ and in 1050s, there was no importance for the Angkor dynasty. At that time, Angkor king was Udayadityavarman II (1050-1066), former commander of Suryavarman I.

 

 R.C. Majumdar explains in detail about Champa King Sri Paramesvaravarmadeva and his nephew Yuvaraja Mahasenapati and Devaraja Mahasenapati.

 

They conquered the rebellion of Panduranga in 1050. “All the troops of Panduranga came to fight. Yuvaraja pursued and crushed them all and they took shelter in mountains and caverns. On behalf of king Paramesivaravarmandeva Dharmarja, Yuvaraja, who had a powerful army, ordered his troops to pursue them in all directions. And these troops got hold of all the people of Panduranga with oxen, buffaloes, slaves and elephants. The kings installed lings to commemorate their victory”.

 

Next the king turned his attention towards his western enemy, the commander Yuvaraja proceeded to the Angkor dynasty and crushed the Angkor army and took the town of Sambhupura. The commander Yuvaraja destroyed many temples there and distributed the Khmer captives among the temples of Srisanabhadresnara. However, Angkor left no record of this invasion. So, this story is quite dubious. Probably 100 years later, Angkor occupied Vijaya, by Jayavarman VII (or Suryavarman II in 1145)

 

At this time Champa probably dominated Thu-Bon area and Southern area (Phan Rang and Nha Trang) was out of control. Panduranga had enjoyed a semi-independent status, when it was not the chief seat of power in Champa, and was a constant source of irritation to Cham kingdom ruling at the north.  A strong king, Jaya Paramesvaravarman, came to the throne of Champa about 1050 or a little earlier and, with his sonor nephew) Yuvaraja Mahasssenapati, thoroughly subdued Panduranga, according to several inscriptions of Po Klang Garai, Phan Rang dated 1050.

 

The Song Court who did not register the war of 1044 and 1069, seems to have been in contact with Rudravarman of Phan Rang, for they recorded a tribute from ‘Champa’ in 1069, and it is not certain that all the envoys recorded as coming to China from ‘Champa’ were from the same region. For the Chinse officials, they could not have identified the separate relations with the Thu Bon- Quang Nnam-Quang Ngai rulers and with Pandruranga rulers.

 

Epigraphy toward the end of the eleventh century shows two groups of royalties, one in the Thu Bon area leaving inscription in My Son and another in the South with the inscriptions in Nha Trang and Phan Rang.

 

R.C.Majumdar gives us the detailed explanations in his book(Champa) as follows.

“Jaya Paramesvaravarman cultivated good relations with the Emperors of China and Annam. To the Song Court he sent ambassadors in 1050, 1053 and 1056. On the last journey, his ambassador was shipwrecked and lost all his cargo, whereupon the Chinese Emperor sent him 1000 ounces of silver.”

Champa’s ambassador also visited the Court of Annam Emperor in 1047,1050, 1055,1060 and sometimes between 1057 and 1059 A.D.

Jaya Paramesvaravarman was probably succeeded by Bhadravarman IV(III?).”

 

He probably sent tribute to China in 1061. He was succeeded by Rudavarman IV. He was born in the family of Jaya Paramesvara but the relation is unknown. From the beginning, he made preparations attacking Annam. He sent an ambassador to China in 1062 for securing assistance against the Annam but the Chinese Emperor did not want to attack Annam. So, Rudraman IV sent tributes to the Annam Emperor 1063, 1065 and 1068. But all the while he continued preparations and opened hostility towards the end of 1068. The Annamite Emperor, Ly Thanh Ton(李聖宗、1054-72 took up the challenge and moved his troops on Feburary 1069.

The inscriptions of Champa refer to troubles in the past, approximately the 1060s-70s, but not to war with Vietnam (Annam).

 However, R.C.Majumdar gave us the detailed explanations in his book Champa) as follows.

 

Majumdar says as follows:

 

"After long fierce battle, Champa was defeated, on the 17th July, the Annamite army occupied the capital. Rudravarman with his family was caught near the Angkor border. About 50,000 prisoners were taken to Tonkin, and Rudravarman was freed after he gave 3 districts to Annam, Dia Ly, Ma Linh and Bo Chanh in 1069.

" This meant the cession of the whole of Quang Binh and the northern part of Quang Tri and brought the frontier of Champa to the mouth of the river Viet. However, Champa was to fight to regain these territories in future many times. On his return to Champa, Rudravarman IV found Champa was in the state of anarchy and several persons had claimed themselves as kings in different parts of the kingdom. (Majumdar, p. 82).

 

However, the Song Hui Yao宋会要) tells nothing about the wars in  1044 and 1069. M. Vickery does not believe this story as above mentioned.

 

M. Vickery says as follows:

"Ma Linh and Bo Chinh far north of Indrapura-Dong Durong, had already been reported as lost at the end of the tenth century, and their possession again by the Cham until the war of 1069 belies the interpretation of a Cham retreat from Indrapura to Vijaya at the end of the 990s. Here we see the confusion in the sources concerning Viet-Champa relation."

However, there might be no reason for Champa rulers to tell a simple lie to pretend the removal of capital to Vijaya.

The Song Court who did not register the war of 1044 and 1069, seems to have been in contact with Rudravarman of Phan Rang, for they recorded a tribute from Champa in 1069, and it is not certain that all the envoys recorded as coming to China from “Champa” were from the same region. It would have been unusual for China to have separate relations with the Thu Bon- Quang Nnam-Quang Ngai rulers and with Pandruranga rulers which at different times they considered a distinct separate polity.

Epigraphy toward the end of the eleventh century shows two groups of royalties, one in the Thu Bon area leaving inscription in My Son and another in the South with the inscriptions in Nha Trang and Phan Rang.

 

 Champa sent tributes to Annam in 1071, 1072 and 1074, and to China in 1072.

Among many competitors after Rudravarman IV, in 1074 Harivarman IV took the throne of Champa. He was the son of Pramesvara Dharmaraja of the Coconut Clan. His mother belonged to the Betelnut Clan, so he represented the two chief rival families of the kingdom.

 

After defeat of Rudravarman IV, Harivarman IV established his authority over the greater part of Champa. But the civil war continued throughout his reign and he had to fight with rival chiefs for throne of Champa. To make matters worse, the Annam king sent a new expedition in 1075, and the king of Angkor began plundering raids.

 

 Harivarman IV, a Cham prince who reigned 1074-81, boasts of a victory at Somesvara over Khmer troops commanded by a prince, Nandanavarman, who was captured by him. Nandanavarman had a royal title, but left no trace in Khmer epigraphy. (C. Jacques, p145)

 

The Annam forces were also defeated, so Harivarman IV assured the safety of the newly established power. King Harivarman IV celebrated his coronation. He had to repair the damages by Annam invasions and civil wars. The inscription writes: “The Majesty Vijaya Sri Harivarmadeva, Yan Devatamuti ascended the throne. He completely defeated the enemies, proceeded to the Nagara Champs and restored the temple of Srisanabhadresvara. (No. 61).

Two inscriptions of My Son (Nos. 61, 62) describe in detail the work of restoration by the king and his brother Yuvaraja Mahasenapati. (Majumdar, p. 86)

With the exception of Panduranga, the whole of Champa was united under his authority. In 1081 A.D. at the age of 41 Harivarmn IV abdicated in favor of his eldest son, Pulyan Sri Rajadvara, and devoted himself to spiritual exercises and worship of Siva. However, he died soon in 1081. His 14 wives followed him to death in right Indian fashion.

 

Pulyan Sri Rajadvara ascended the throne under the name of Yan-pu-ku Sri Jaya Indravarmadeva II. He was a boy of 9 years old then and was obviously unfit to hold the rein of government in those troublesome days. He had hardly reigned for a month, and the throne was offered to Pu-lyan Sri Yuvaraja Mahasenapati, prince Pan, youger brother of Sri Harivarman IV. The event is thus described in the My Son Inscriprion of Jaya Indravarman II himself.

 

The Yuvaraja ascended the throne under the title Paramabodhisattva in 1081 A.D. He recovered Panduranga and achieved the unity of Champa. At Panduranga a usurper (name is unknown) had set up an independent kingdom after the Annamite invasion of 1069. And maintained his position for 16 years. However, Paramabodhisattava resigned in 1086, and his nephew regained the throne, and revived the name of Sri Jaya Indravarman II at the age of 14 years old.

Jaya Indravarman II (1086-1114A.D.) paid his tribute to Annam regularly, but he deplored the loss of the three districts ceded by Rudravarman IV.

 

 The two peoples (Champa and Annam) were so much estranged over this question, that when their ambassadors, having arrived at the Chinese court on the same day, they kept themselves aloof from each other. At a dinner time in which they were invited they sat at two ends of the table. At last in 1092 A.D. Indravarman II stopped the payment of tribute to Annam (Chiao Zhi=交趾) and approached the Chinese emperor with a proposal to make a common cause against Annam. The Chinese emperor, however, refused to fight with Annam. Nevertheless, Jaya Indravarman II continued to withhold the tribute till a formal complaint was made by the Annamese Court in 1094. Indravarman V was seized with terror, and hastened to comply with the demand of tribute. The tribute was sent in 1095, 1097, 1098, 1099 and 1102.

 

Jaya Indravarman II tried to attack Annam to recover the ceded districts in 1103, but he was easily defeated by Annam. He immediately sent tribute to Annam. Henceforth the two countries live in peace and tributes were regularly sent from Champa to Annam.

 

Jaya Indravarman II was succeeded to his nephew Harivarman V in 1114.  (No.68). Havarman V died in 1139, but left no children and succeeded by Jaya Indravarman III. (1139-1145).

 

Jaya Indravarman III was born in 1106, and he became Devaraja in 1129 and Yuvaraja in 1133. Finally, he ascended the throne in 1139 (No.69). He was involved in a quarrel with the Angkor king, Suryavarman II, who ascended the throne in 1112 and began to harass Champa. Suryavarman II sent tribute mission to Song in 1116, thereafter he started invasion to Annam 1128, with 20,000 army and induced the king of Champa to join the Angkor force. But the both armies were separately defeated by the Annamite army. Next Suryavarman II dispatched a navy of 700 vessels to harass the coast of Than Hoa. A similar attempt was again made in 1132 when Jaya Indravarman III invaded Nghe-An in concert with the army of Angkor, but was easily defeated. He then settled matters with Annam by paying off the tribute in 1136.

 

At the same time, he withdrew from the offensive alliance with Angkor. Suryavarman II got angry and in 1144-5, he invaded Champa and made himself the ‘master of Vijaya’. Jaya Indravarman III was killed in this battle. During 1145-49, Angkor had dominated Vijaya.

 

After this incident, a descendant of king Paramabodhisattva proclaimed himself king and took refuge in Panduranga. His name was Rudravarman Parama Brahmaloka. He was a son of eminent king Rudraloka, who was the successor of Harivarman V. However, he died in 1147.

 On the death of the king, the people of Panduranga invited his son Ratnabhumivijaya to be the king of Champa, and he ascended the throne in 1147, under the name of Sri Jaya Harivarman I (鄒時闌巴).

 

Sri Jaya Harivarman I ascended the throne in the difficult time. The greater part of Champa was under the attack of Angkor and Annamite. In 1147, Jaya Harivarman I defeated the Angkor army at the field of Kayev.

 

The Angkor army commanded by general Sangkara was aided by Cham soldiers of Vijaya. Jaya Harivarman I met at Chaklyan (probably the southern village of Phan Vijaya) to fight in the plain of Virapura and defeated the Angkor army. The next year in 1148, Jaya Harivarman I met the Angkor troops at the field of Kayev and also defeated them.

 

 Suryavarman II consecrated his brother-in-law, Harideva, as King of Champa and commanded generals to lead the Angkor troops and to protect Prince Harideva until he became king of Vijaya. Jaya Harivarman I marched northward, seized Vijaya and totally destroyed the Khmer and Cham forces at Mahisa. Harideva was killed at that time. Then Jaya Harivarman I was consecrated at Vijaya in 1149.

 

But the relative of Jaya Harivarman I betrayed him. The brother of his wife called Vanaraja now joined his enemies. But Jaya Harivarman I defeated them all.

 At last he integrated Champa from Panduranga to Vijaya, and later My Son area.

However, civilian war took place, first at Amaravati (1151) and then Panduranga (1155). Jaya Harivarman I defeated both. He restored all the damaged temples and set up Sivalingas.

 

Like Jaya Indravarman, king Jaya Harivarman I also believed that he was an incarnation of Uroja (legendary hero). He sent tribute to China in 1152 and in 1154. To Ammanite court he also sent tribute in 1155 and 1160. He died in 1162, and he was succeeded by his son Jaya Harivarman II, He is referred to as a king by his son’s inscriptions (No.94 and 95). Within a year of the death of king Jaya Harivarman II, the throne of Champa was occupied by Pu Ciy Anak Sri Jaya Indravarman IV, an inhabitant of Gramapura Vijaya. He sent tributes to Annamite court in 1164 and 1165.

 

Jaya Indravarman IV was formally consecrated to the throne about in 1165. He sent an envoy to the Song Court. The tributes from Champa was plundered from Arb merchants. The Emperor, who had been known the source of tribute, refused to accept them. The offered tributes from Champa was extremely huge as follows:

 

By 6 vessels, white Frankincense 20,435 Jin(), common grade frankincense 80,295 Jin, ivory 7,795 Jin, various kind of incense. Frankincense was the most important and variable item for the Song Court.

 

Jaya Indravarman IV paid big present to the Emperor of Annamite and secured the neutrality of Annam. On the other hand, he began to attack the Angkor 1170, At that time the king of Angkor was Dharanindravarman II. Jaya Indrvarman asked China for purchasing horses, but China was not affirmative.

 

 (Tribute missions:10611176)

 

In 1061 Champa sent an envoy with tribute of trained elephants.

 

In May 1062, Champa ambassador Ton-pa-ni(頓琶尼) presented tribute in box.

 

In June 1062, The Song Court gave the Champa king, Yan Pu Sri Rudravarman III(施里律茶盤麻常楊溥) one white horse.

 

In June 1068, The Champa king Yang Pu Sri Rudravarmadeva(卜尸利律陀般摩提婆 )sent ambassador Abu Mohamed (蒲麻勿) to the Song Court with tribute and asked for permission to purchase mules(not hoarses) in the market. The Emperor gave him one white horse with silver saddle, and instruction to Kanton officials to help him? purchasing mules.

 

 In 1069 Dai Vet is said to attack Binh-Dinh (Vijaya), but M. Vickery is suspicious. (M. Vickery, p393).

 

In April 1072,the ambassador Ali po-liu (李蒲薩) was sent to Song, with tribute of grass-ware, camphor, frankincense, pepper and so on.

 

 In 1076, 1086, 1127 Champa sent missions but very few times compared with San-fo-chi. There was political turmoil in Champa.

 

In 1084, Paramabodhisattava (波羅摩菩提薩) set up his political base at Thu Bon area, after the victory of war between Nha Trang and Panduranga.

 

In 1088, Jaya Indravarman II regained the throne of Champa.

 

Around in 1113Harivarman V (楊卜麻疊) ascend the throne (Dohi, p398) .

 

 In 1117, Champa sent tribute, with golden flower to Dai Vet (Annam).

 

In 1129, Champa king Harivarman V (楊卜麻疊) sent an ambassador to Song.

 

In December 1116, Angkor king Suryavaruman II, sent tribute mission to the Song Court after 300 years' absence.

 

In 1119, Angkor sent mission (14 officials) to Song, and the next year they were awarded Chinese officials costume and the King was assigned to king of Champa (nominal).

 

In 1132, Champa king sent an envoy with present of rhinoceroses, elephants, turtle-shells and incense.

 

Since 1139 Jaya Indravarman III, retained the throne of Champa(1139-1145).

 

In October 1155, Jaya Harivarman I (鄒時闌巴) sent mission with tribute rhino-horn 20, ivory 168, turtle-shell 60 Jin and various incenses.

 

In November 1155, Angkor and Lopburi sent a joint mission to the Song Court. (The Song Shi)

 

 1166 or 1167 Jaya Indravarman IV(鄒亜娜) killed Jaya Harivarman II and took the throne. About Jaya Harivarman II, the detail is unknown.

 

In 1167 Jaya Indravarman IV(鄒亜娜) robbed the cargo of Da-Shi and sent an envoy with huge present to the Song Court. But the Song Court rejected accept it and no reward was given. But finally, the Song Court bought up all of the ’Frankincense’.

 

Jaya Indravarman IV was not authorized by Song as the king of Champa, but treated as the heir-apparent of the king.

 

He is Jaya Indravarman on Vatun,came from Gramapuravijaya and usurper, who sent tribute to Annam too. And he fought against Angkor.

 

 China recorded in 1170, Jaya Indravarman IV attacked Angkor but unsuccessful

 

 In 1174 Jaya Indravarman IV again sent tribute to Song. In 1176, he sent the last official mission to Song and rewarded silk and silver. But his title was still ‘heir-apparent of King. He was not authorized as king of Champa. (文忠集、巻111)

 

 In 1177, here is a story that Jaya Indravarman IV attacked Angkor and killed king Tribhuvanadityavarman and returned with enormous booty. But M. Vickery denies this story, because no inscription about this war recorded In Champa. However, king Tribhuvanadityavarman was certainly killed by someone. Jayavarman VII took the Angkor throne 4 years later in 1811. This attack in 1177, is recorded in the Chinese text, but probably the Chinese official was told this dubious story by the ambassador of Jayavarman VII in 1200. The incident in 1177, was basically 'coup d’etat' by Jayavarman VII, by using the military assistance of Champa, led by Indravarman IV, so the inscription of Champa might have keep quiet about this incident.

 

 In 1182, champa prince Vidyananda of Tumpraukvijaya (later Cham king Suryavarmadeva) went to Angkor and was taken into the service of Jayavarman VII. In that capacity, he led troops to put down a rebellion in Malyang, near Battambang and defeated the enemy. He was then assigned Yuvaraja by Jayavarman VII.

 

He entrusted this campaign to a young Cham refugee prince named Sri Vidyanandana, native of Tumprank-Vijaya. The king of Champa was at that time was Jaya Indravarman IV. The story of this prince is told in a My Son pillar inscription:

 

In 1190, king Sri Jaya Indravarman IV made war against the king of Kambujadedsa (Jayavarman VII). Prince Vidyanandana as the head of the Angkor troops to take Vijaya and defeat the king. He captured the Indravarnan IV and had brougt him to Kambujadesa (Angkor). He proclaimed Suryajayavarmadeva Prince In, brother-in-law of the king of Kambujadesa (Jayavarman VII), as king of Vijaya.

 

In 1190, Sri Jaya Inxdravarman IV was captured by Jayavarman VII and in 1911 he was released, but killed by his subordinate (Dohi, p460)

 

A Cham inscription, Po Nagar says that Jayavarman VII took the capital and carried off all the lingas, because he is Buddhist.

 

However in 1191, a revolt drove Prince In Vidyanandana out of Champa and seated in his place a Cham prince Rashupati, who ruled under the name of Jaya Indravarmadeva Jaya Indravarman V. In 1192, Jayavarman VII sent Jaya Indravarman IV (ong Vatuv) to help prince Vidyanandana reconquer Champa. They met at Rajapura, took Vijaya and killed Jaya Indravarman V, and ruled over Vijaya.

 Then Jaya Indravarman IV fled from Cambodia and went to Amaravati where he raised a revolt and invaded Vijaya; but the prince Vidyanandana defeated and killed him. Henceforth the prince ruled without opposition (Briggs, p216).

 

Champa was united again under a Cham king Suryavarmadeva (prince Vidyanandana). However, he rebelled against Jayavarman VII later. In 1193, Jyavarman VII sent an army to Champa, but defeated. The next year Angkor sent a larger army, but defeated again. In 1194 Suryavarmadeva sent tribute to Dai Vet. In 1198, he was formally consecrated and sent an embassy to the Song Court asking for investiture, which he received in 1199.

 

However, Jayavarman VII, finally attacked Champa, Suryavarmadeva fled to Dai Viet. But he was involved in trouble at the Co-la port with the local governor of Dai-Viet and heard nothing from the incident.

 

 慶元(1195~)以來,眞臘大舉伐占城以復讎,殺戮殆盡,俘其主以歸,國遂亡,其地悉歸眞臘。(The Song Shi)

 

Jayavarman VII died in 1218, post-humous name of Mahaparamasaugata, (reigned c.1181–1218).  Angkor pulled out from Champa in 1220. Angkor realized they had no power to put Champa under control. After 1222, Champa regained independence by Jaya Parameshvaravarman II. Jayavarman VII had employed Champa princes, but they betrayed him finally. As the result, Jayavarman VII controlled Champa by himself. However, Angkor had lost military power and gave up Champa after his death. Angkor could not have gathered enough soldiers from Thai and the Mons as mercenary, because they were getting stronger and establishing their own countries.