The History of Pre-Angkor


Chapter3 Chenla and Angkor Kingdom 2016-5-30

3 - 1 Chenla expelled Funan from the Mekong Delta

Chenla was originally a subordinate state of Funan. Chenla finally destroyed Funan and kicked out Funan from the Mekong delta. What did Chenla get after victory?

 Chenla used to dominate the Funan's "the land trade routes (route of western imports)", at the same time dominated the surrounding rural areas. And put pressure on Funan, Chenla gradually increased economic and military power.
According to the "Sui Shu(隋書)", Chenla was located at southwest of Linyi and originally a vassal state of Funan. Actually Chenla dominated important on land trade routes and the roads and the major river traffic-routes. They dominated vast rice paddy field along the major rivers of northeast of Thailand and had strong economic and military power. This was the situation at the early stage of the 6th century.

Michael Vickery, denies this. He believes that Funan and Chenla were within one polity and could not be separated. Indeed Funan's one secction was Chenla, which was in charge of stocking and transporting the imported west goods. However their division of works was fixed for a long time, so the character of two groups had changed gradually. Funan group was in charge of the direct international trade and Chenla group had vast area of the northeast Thiland and upper part of the Mekong basin and became the landlord dominating farmers and villages.

The last king of Funan was Rudravarman, there is the following description in " Liang Shu( 梁書)". Kaundinya Jayavarman ( 僑陳如闍邪 ) had sent missions in 511 and 514 to China. Afterword his death in 514. Rudravarnman, a son of the concubine killed the younger brother who was the child of the lawful wife, and had a regality to succeed the throne. Rudravarman was a typical "usurper".

In case of such incident, it is not extraordinary that the political strife happens among the royal family. Chenla group might have taken advantage of political change of Funan's regime. As the land-route controller, Chenla's position was declining in the Funan regime since middle of the 4th century. However the economic power of Chenla was increasing because Chenla became landlord in the northeast part of Thailand. Actually they controlled Si-Thep and other farm area. However, on the other hand, Funan was prosperous by international trade. The role of Ban Ban state located at the Bandon Bay area increased instead of Si Thep and Oc-Eo line. So, the sentiment of the Chenla rulers became antagonistic toward Funan rulers. The conflict between the two groups was apparent after Rudravarman took the throne.

Rudravarman was a Buddhist and embraced Sivaism. The rulers of Chenla were all staunch believers in Sivaism, they hate Buddhism and even dislilked Vishnu. Buddha was considered as the incarnation of Vishnu.

Rudravarman probably died in 540. He had sent 6 times tributary missions to China, in 517519, 520, 530535 and 539. The Liang Shu (梁書)says "the envoy of Funan paid tribute of alive rhinoceros, and said in Funan they have Buddha's long hair twelve feet length. The emperor wanted the hair and sent high rank priest Sri Yun Bao ( 釈雲寶 ) to receive the sacred hair. "

On the other hand the rulers of Funan, Chenla's anticipating attack, they began preparation to shift headquarters to Ban Ban from the Mekong delta.

Bhavavarman, after the killing of Funan's royal family or expelled them, claiming to be the first Chenla king, inheriting the throne after King Rudravarman around 550 AD. Bhavavarman had clarified the point to identify himself as he belonged to the 'lunar line' of traditional Funan kingship. (Briggs, pp40)...

Why Bhavavarman pretended he was on line with the Funan royal family? On the other hand Jayavarman II declared he belonged to the 'solar line (Chenla family)' Anyway both lines left no 'DNA' evidence.

Chitrasena (later, king Mahendravarman), the younger brother (the different father younger brother?) of Bhavavarman was serving as the commander of the Chenla army.

One of his inscriptions is left at Si Thep. His relation with Si Thep was so deep as he is supposed to have come from Si Thep.

SI Thep had been the center of the Pa Sak river basin (Pa Sak Valley) in the paddy field rice-growing area, being in present north central part of Thailand.

However, basically land is not a personal property, but of the community. The ruler of the community was a 'leader of the villagers' and took care after problems of the village. M. Vickery suggests that is the character of the society. (Toyo, pp22-23) He continues "this type of organization was suitable for the pre-historic communities revealed by archaeology in northeastern Thailand, in which possibilities for concentration of wealth and territorial expansion were limited, and indeed in which communities may have been separated by large areas of unoccupied and unowned land.

Rudravarman, the last king of Funan is supposed to have been in Angkor Borei in southern part of Cambodia. However, there are opinions that Rudravarman and the leaders of Chenla had been near or distant 'relative'.

It is possible that leaders of Funan and Chenla had been in the brotherhood. But, the Chenla group in the inland area was in charge of the transportation of west goods at the same time they had controlled extensive rice paddy area. That means Chenla group had sufficient capability to amass large army. After Rudramana's death, Chenla army proceeded to the south to take over the trade business of Funan, and finally kicked out Funan rulers from the Mekong delta. Chenla had killed some princes of Funan, , but the most of the ruling class of Funan fled to Ban Ban with their navy. As the result Funan could have dominated the estuary of Mekong and the seashore of southern Indochina.

Chenla should have taken over the business of profitable trade from Funan, but miserably they had failed. Chenla started sending tributary mission to China in 616, but Chenla could not use the sea route which was dominated by Funan's navy. M. Vickery made a serious misunderstanding that Funan was in decline, and no longer an attractive object for conquest (M.Vickery, Toyo, pp79), However Chenla had been eager to send tributary missions to China, as the records shown later. Funan had been shifting its headquartes to Ban Ban since a long time ago. So Chenla could not take over the trade facility of Funan.

Isanavarman sent to envoy to China together with Linyi using the sea route in October 628. At that time Chenla informed their state also called ' Khmer. The origin of Chen-la is not clear, so Chenla people prefered to be cqalled 'Khmer'. 

After Chenla's leaders left Si-Thep for the administration of the new kingdom in Cambodia, the Mons remained at Si Thep and they continued their business as usual. As the result the culture of the Mons revived and flourished further there. The establishment of Mahayan Buddhist temples and Buddha statues are observed. There are large remains of Buddhism at Si Thep. Today, there remains large stupas of "Dvaravati style" and "Dharma Chakara". When Chenla leaders had stayed in Si Thep, they were keen Hinduists and basically rejected Buddhism.

U Thong was the second largest intermediary point of the Funan's land route. However the size of U Thong was smaller than that of Si Thep. Major residents of the both cities were the Mon speaking people. They were flexible about the religion, but they worshiped mainly Buddhism..

According to the Liang Shu, the capital of Funan was located at 500 li (about 200 km) from the river mouth, but it didn ' t specify a city name.

The Xin Tang Shu (新唐書)noted that the Funan had transferred the capital to "the Na-fu-na ( 那弗那) from ' Te-mu-city (特牧城) ' at first as Funan received the oppression of Chenla...

Coedes supposes that 'Te-mu city' was Vyadhapura, near Ba Phnom, but Ba Phnom had no direct access to the canal network to Oc Eo port and the Mekong River. (Vickery, pp61).

Considering the plenty of historical remains, Angkor Borei (including Phnom Da) was the most suitable capital of Funan, even though Angkor Borei fit for 'Te-mu city' or not is uncertain. Then the location of 'Na-fu-na' is the next ploblem.  Pelliot suggests it was 'Navanakar', Kampot province. Kampot area may be a probable candidate, where directly faces sea and had the port facility. There is inscription of Jayavarman I who donated there. (M. Vickery, pp41)

For short term, Funan shifted its capital to 'Na-fu-na', but Isanavrman did not allow Funan to stay in Cambodia. He finally expelled Funan until 630 AD.

As the conclusion, "Navanakar"is the most possible candidate of "Nafuna",

Lean Poh, port of Chaiya

Main rivers along the Mekong River

Angkor Borei



3-2 Si Thep as the original base of Chenla, not from Wat Phu

The dominating area of Chenla was the land-route of Funan, starting from Si-Thep, the Chi River, the Mun River, Ubon Ratchathani and Champasak (Wat Phou). Certainly Chenla might have accumulated military force at Wat Phu to attack Funan. Hoever real Chenla's economic and political base had been located at different place. That was northeast Thailand.

SI Thep was the commercial center of the Mons from the ancient times where Indians came later, and established hegemony in the city. The contribution of Indian people to the local resident was big. They taught many things to the Mons and Khmer people how to cultivate paddy field, how to manufacture iron products and sold the part of their imports from west. At the same time Indian imported Hinduism and spread among the local people. There are a lot Hindu images of deities. Many Surya, Krishna, Siva and Vishnu images were discovered at Si Thep and some of them are exhibited at the Bangkok National Museum. Q. Wales says there is similar Siva image at Bhumara temple in India. Probably the original image was imported from India, but local craft men made simplified the original image and made many copies. So, Vishnu images spread to the Malay Peninsula and other vicinities.

The inscriptions of Bhavavarman and Chitrasena exist at Si Thep.

Bhavavarman had not son of the succession, so after the death, Chitrasena = Mahendravarman, Bhavavarman's younger brother succeeded the throne.C. Jacques says they were the sons of Vivavarman.

C. Jacques says that the brothesrs came from the south of the Dangkrek Mountains and the north of Cambodia. Perhaps he wanted to say they came from Wat Phu area. Coedès had a similar opinion. However I suppose they came from Si Thep or the north of the Dangrek Montains area, because Champasak is too narrow to gather a big army. At least their family might have lived at Si Thep where was surrounded by vast paddy field with many population. The farmers ware source of large army. Champasak (Wat Phou) was the intermediary point of the land-route of Funan. The north of the Dangrek Mountains was from the economic point of view, very rich and prosperous at that time. There were iron, copper and salt making facilities and broad paddy field. Chenla group might have economic superiority from the beginning of the conflict with Funan. If Chenla was a regional manager of an intermediary point of land traffic, Chenla could have overcome the headquarters of Funan with their strong army. The movement of Chenla's military action was recognized by Funan's rulers beforehand and the main rulers of Funan had fled away to Ban Ban. For Funan rullers, Ban Ban was sufficient to conduct trade, because the most of west commodies were unloaded at Takua Pa, and could directly ship to China from Chaiya. M.Vickery does not recognize this 'exiled' story and function of Ban Ban state. He believes that due to decrease of international trade, Funan group demised naturally within Cambodia.

After kicked out Funan rullers, Bhavavarman I set up his capital at Sambor Prei Kuk (30-40 km the north of Kompong Thom), where later became Isanapura, the capital of Isanavarman. This place keeps some distance from the Mekong River to avoid sudden attack of exiled Funan. Funan maintained a strong navy and controlled the estuary of the Mekong River and the South China Sea.

The inscriptions of Chitrasena exist in northeast Thailand, the Pasak valley, Korat (Nakhon Ratchasima), Ubon Ratchathani, Phimai, Surin, Ta Praya (Sa Kaeo province) and in Cambodia at Kratie. The range of his activities has greatly extended in the northern part of the Dangrek mountains. The inscriptions of Bhavavarman exist at SI Thep, Battambang, Stung Treng (Cambodian territory) and Wat Phu (Vat Phou). These two brothers are a genealogy of the rulers of the land transportation of Funan and their stronghold was in the north eastern part of current Thailand.

Coedès says that Wat Phu, Laos was the first true Chenla stronghold of Chenla, but his view is not correct as above mentioned...

Coedès named Srutavarman and Sresthavarman as kings of the early Wat Phu district (Coedès, 1968 English, p66). However M. Vickery points out that the two old time kings were named for the first time in the inscription of Jayavarman VII period (12th century) of (M.Vickery, p 42)...

These two king were not known their exact position of 600 years ago. This method is a typical approach of Coedès... It was probably impossible for Chenla to conquer Funan with the small army, amassed from Champasak area. Champasak and Wat Phu had not so large rice field and the population was relatively small compared with that of Funan's dominating left the area. The large army of Chenla probably had been mobilized from the vast farmland of the Pasak Valley and northeast of Thailand...

On the other hand, Funan was the international trading state, and promoted the development of a rational international trade route. Finally Takua Pa (Ko Koh Khao) in the Malay Peninsula port was selected. From Takua Pa to Chaiya on-land route was fixed as their constant course. They used the Klong Sok and Phum Dung River. Further from Ban Ban state Funan directly sailed to China, under the name of Fuan and sometimes under the name of Ban Ban. Funan maintained two trade names to China since the middle of the 5th century, so to speak.

The mainstream forces of Funan, from the middle of the 5th century, gradually evacuated from Oc Eo and moved the business center to "Ban Ban". They moved their navy to the Bandon Bay, together with craftsmen, sculptors in advance. It is deduced from Angkor Borei district and the similar Vishnu and Buddha images exist in Chaiya district.

The Xin (New) Tang Shu says that in Shi-li-fo-shi (室利仏逝、Srivijaya), there are too many men. This suggests Srivijaya maintains many navy soldiers. It is unreasonable arguing of M. Vickery says that foreign trade is facing the loss so Funan has made "natural demise".

3-3 Pre-Angkor Kingdom

C. Jacques says, "King Bhavavarman I was a prince from the region of Wat Phu in southern Laos. He had not been chosen as successor to the throne of his father's small state and decided, nevertheless, to establish a kingdom of his own. After having conquered of the main part of what is now Cambodia, he had set up his capital some 30 kilometers from the town now called Kompong Thom. The precise location of his city, near or on the site of Smbor Prei Kuk, has not yet been identified. (C. Jacques, pp56)

C. Jacques says that Bhavavarman was too ambisious to inherit his father's small kingdom and he independently expanded his territory. But his intention to take over Funan's business was very clear from the beginning. Furthermore it is not sure that he was a prince of the Wat Phu kingdom. Bhavavarman extended his kingdom for northwest town of Battambang, where he left inscription. Why Battambang? There was no gold mine, but on the nearest route to Chantaburi port, from where Chenla could have attacked Ban Ban (Chaiya) and the shortest trade route to the Malay Peninsula.

On the other hand, according to C. Jacques, his 'less ambitious' younger brother Citrasena, had inherited small kingdom of Wat Phu from his father. However his activity as the commander of Chenla had been very striking. He left many inscriptions as above mentioned.

Mahendravarman's death Isanavarman(616?-635?) succeeded him. He placed his capital at Isanapura. Within the city wall more than 20000 families live.

On the death of King Isanavarman I in 635 ?AD, one of his younger sons succeeded under the name of Bhavavarman II. M. Vickery says that his original name was Bhavakumara and later becamr king (M.Vickery, pp24). But Briggs denys that he was not a son of Isanavarman.and his reign was very short.(Briggs, pp52,53). He was far from having the prestage of Isanavarman, and failed to maintain the unity of his Chenla kingdom. The princedoms regained their independence. One of these was situated in the north of province now known as Kompong Thom. Later, Jayavarman I, grandson of Isanavarman I tried to rebuild the empire of Isanavarman I.


Inscription of Citracena, Ubon Ratchatanee Museum.

Two inscriptions related Chitrasena were discovered at Ubon Ratchathani (K.496-497) and another (K363) was discovered at Basak in Laos. These are written the name of 'Citrasena, also named Mahendravarman, younger brother of Bhavavarman, son of Vivavarman'.

In another inscription (K.508), a word, 'grandson of Svabhauma', is added (M.Vickery, pp74).

Some more inscriptions of Chitrasena are at Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Pimai, Surin, and Ta Praya. All of the inscriptions were in the north side (today's northeast area of Thailand) of the Dangrek mountains where were his main activity area.

M. Vickery says "The 'Dangrek' inscriptions should be regarded as records of exploratory probes rather than enduring conquests, with little, if any, permanent effect (in the words of Coedès about K. 213." a simple cry of victory not implying a permanent occupation of the country "); and I would not interpret Mahndravarman's inscriptions as 'delimiting' any kingdom, either his father's or his own. " (M.Vickery, Toyo, pp79). However his interpretation of these inscriptions is a little biased. ' Simple cry of victory 'would not elaborate their family relation'. Apparently Si Thep had been their 'home town' and the local people celebrated their success.

About the reign dates of the kings of Chenla are not identified exactly. M.Vickery says as follows:

"Mahendravarman's reign, no fixed date is available

About Isanavarman, traditionally accepted date of reign (616? - 635?) have been based on a Chinese record of a Cambodian mission in 616, and also believed to have been his and reference to him in a Chinese report dated 635.

Bhavavarman II may have been recognized as king soon after 637 and until the mid-650 s, although only two dates 637, 639 and or 644, are associated with his reign in contemporary inscriptions,

The dates of Jayavarman I are similarly controversial, and I suppose here roughly 655 / 657-680 / 81. Only one date in recorded for Queen Jayadevi, 713, and then there no more dates associated with the names of rulers until the first inscriptions of Jayavarman II in 770 and 781 "(Toyo Bunko pp22).

Isanavarman had two sons, and their mother was from the Adhyapura family. The elder brother was Sivadatta and younger brother was Bhavakumara, later King Bhavarman II. Sivadatta was ruler of several cities (pura), Bhavapura, Adhyapura and Jyestjhapura. Sivadatta might have become a member of the Adhyapura family which was the most influential.

Isanavarman was the most powerful king of the pre-Angkor kingdom. He assigned many local governors (kings). However they often claimed some degree of local autonomy, with the exception of Adhyapura family, which is not recorded after the time of Bhavavarman II. (M.Vickery, Toyo PP25)

A more forceful policy of centralization was instituted by Jayavarman I (657? - 681?), who may also, through his mother, had been in a line of descent from Isanavarman, and who does not appear of the Adhyapura family, although he was in a way adopted by them retrospectively, meaning that he probably married into their group. (M. Vickery, Toyo, pp25)

M. Vickery says that Jayavarman's father, Candravarman, was probably one type of traditional ritual specialist a stac, who probably also descended from the main line of kings, and thus a cousin of Jayavarman's mother. (M.Vickery, Toyo, pp25)

The capital of Jayavarman I was said to be Purandrapura, but not identified, however he did not occupy Isanapura or Bhavaputra as capital. (Toyo M.Vickery, pp26)


All of these beginning kings, Bhavavarman, Mahendravarman and Isanavarman, are known as staunch Sivaists and suppressed Buddhism. Economically they failed to promote international trade by sea, especially the tributary to China. So, they could not have increased their wealth as expected.

As M. Vickery says that the irrigation system had been discovered between Funan and Chenla times, but the scale of the artificial ponds were small and carried out at the level of the local communities and no remains of large hydraulic works have been discovered. Vickery (pp306)

As for the expansion of rice field, they had done only a little, and neglected the large scale expansion of irrigation system. Through pre-Angkor time, economic development was limited. As the result, the pre-Angkor kingdom declined without the trade profit.

Land was the property of the community and problems concerning it were part of a boss ' responsibility, but the land was not his property.

The inscriptions related Bhavavarman were discovered at Battambang  (K.213, his name only) , and Si Thep inscription (k.978) which says ' Bhavavarman, son of Prathivindravarman, grandson of Cakravatin ', and that of Stung Treng(K.359) says 'Hiranyavarman, son of Somasarman and of sister of Bhavavarman, daughter of Viravarman' (P74-75, Vickery). Judging from the existence of their inscriptions, their fields of activities were mainly in northeast of Thailand. But they had established their base at Wat Phu and Stung Treng, along the Mekong River.


Photos     1. Distant view frpm Wat Phu 2. WAT Phu Buddha footprint        3.Humn sacrificing rock.


3-3-1 Isanavarman

The Sui Shu says that Citrasena expelled Funan rullers, but some Funan people might have remained in south part of Cambodia... After Mahendravarman's death Isanavarman succeeded him. He placed his capital at Isanapura. Within the city wall more than 20000 families live. In the city there is a big hall in which king practised usual administration. There are 30, Isanapura around big cities, and each city has several thousand families living and has army. The officials ' names are same as those of Ling-yi...

It is remarkable that the administration system of Chenla and Linyi are similar. Isanavarman's daughter married with a prince of Lin-yi.

His daughter Sri Sarvani married to the prince of Cham, Jagaddharma. However, he lied at Bhavapura of Chenla, after involed with some trouble. They had a prince, named Prakasadharma =諸葛地, and he mounted the throne of Champa in 635, as Vikrantavarman (Briggs, p52)...

This is recorded in the epitaph in My-Son.

 The Xin Tang Shu writes that Isanavarman completely expelled Funan at the early time of the ' Zhen Guan ( 貞観 . 627-649AD) era and integrated Cambodia Chenla.

Judging from this description, Funan might have maintained some territory in Cambodia until around 630 AD. However their main staff stayed at Chaiya. Isanavarman was "protector of the Master Siva" and succeeded his father, Mahendravarman. More than a dozen inscriptions are attributed to the reign of Isanavarman

From a little above the month of the Mun River, including the lower valley of that river, the Chenla of Bhvavarman and Mahendravarman, according to their inscriptions and momuments seems not to have included much more than a strip along both sides of the Mekong including the Tonle Sap basin, perhaps to the Great Lake, and the lower part of the 'V' between the Mekong and the Tonle Sap.

Briggs says "Funan, at the South, seems to have enjoyed a degree of autonomy and may still at the beginning of Isanavarman reign, have exercised some control over the coast of the Bay of Camranth and have had the loyalty of some of its maritime colonies." (Briggs, pp47)

However, Funan rulers fled away to the Bay of Bandon area (Ban Ban state), because Bhavavarman killed some princes of Funan, and there was no place to stay in Cambodia after the victory of Chenla. Antagonism between Chenla and Funan was very severe, so Chenla could not have sent tributary mission to China through the sea route. For a short period Funan group could have survived at the sea-shore area, for instance Kampot, but they were probably attacked by Chenla and could not have stayed for a long time.

About "Aninditapura", Briggs says as following:

To the west of the Mekong, Aninditapura--at this time, probably called Baladityapura - seems to have occupied the valley of the Sung Sen, a tributary of the Tonle Sap parallel to the Mekong and the territory to the west, to the line running from the eastern end of the Great Lake, roughly corresponding to the present Kompong Thom.

As above mentioned, Isanavarman's wife came from Aninditapura family. Adhyapura was located near Ba Phnom. She got 2 sons, Sivaddata and Bhanakumara. The younger brother Bhanakumara later became Bhavavarman II, who was the chief of Bhavaputra, apparently upper Mekong.

Where was supposed near Ta Phraya, king of Jyesthapura, Sivaddata was assigned. Sivaddata also left inscription at Prachinburi, near the Gulf of Thailand. What means the separation of two brothers? While Isanavarman was alive, there might be little problem. Isanavarman tried to pull together local leaders under his arm to centralize political power. However, after his death, serious problem might have occurred within Cambodia.

(Sacred Mountain and Pyramid)

Coedès says that the Mountain Lingaparvata "written in the" Sui Shu is the high mountain of Wat Phu. of which peak shaped huge natural lingam. But M. Vickery considers that judging from the context of the Sui Shu this mountain should be close to the capital of Isanavarman, and it was probably 'Phnom Suntuk' 30 km away from the capital. The sacred mountain should be near capital. The sacred mountain was considered as the center of the universe, that is the basic idea at the time. Lingaparvata is located too far away as the sacred mountain of Isanavarman. Later, in the Angkor kingdom, many kings constructed piramid style towers and the tallest tower was considered the sacred Mt. Meru where the king's linga was set up.

Brahmanism took a very unusual form, apparently for the first time in Cambodia, during the reighn of Isanavarman. This was the worship of Harihara- Vishnu and Siva combined in one body.(Briggs,pp51). This harihara bwcame popular in Chenla.

3-4 End of Pre-Angkor

Yi-Jing wrote in the “Nan Hai”at theend of the 7th century:


“After one month journey to the southwest, there is Funan country. In the past Funan was a naked people’s country. Nowadays many people believe in Hinduism. Once in Funan, the law of Buddha prospered and spread, but wikied kings (of Chenla) destroyed it and ther are no more monks, and non-Buddhism (Hindu) prevails” Buddhism in Cambodia was once completely destroyed by Isanavarman and Bhavavarman II. 

Coedes says Jayavarman I (657-681?) is a son of Bhavavarman II, but M. Vickery thinks he is a son of Chandravarman (Vickery, pp26).

Usually Jayavarman I was said to be a son of Bhavavarman II, but there is an opinion that Jayavarman I (655- 681?) was born as the son of Candravarman of the local lord in Kompong Thom by Soma royal family. Directly, he has nothing to do with this Adhyapura family but his wife came from the Adhyapura family. (Briggs, p54).

His inscription which attached the title of Maharaja ( k1059 ) have been found. Certainly he integrated whole Cambodia. However, Jayavarman I, despite its outward success the unity of Cambodia into cracks. (Jacques. p57).

He has sent army for the first time throughout Cambodia and confirmed unity, then he sent troops to upper Laos and Yunnan Province in China. His capital was Purandarapura but were not determined place.

There is an opinion that Jayavarman I was born as the son of Candravarman of the local lord in Kompong Thom by Soma royal family. Directly, he has nothing to do with this Adhyapura family but his wife came from the Adhyapura family.

Vyadhapura ( Prei Veng ) is Kampong Cham (Kompong Cham) of in the South. Some say here was the old capital city of Funan, but M. Vickery denys it. However, this area used to be commercial activities flourished. Jayavarman I seems to love this region. The old capital city to the north of Kampong Thom (Isanapura) was in the defensive position and desolate. But his intention was unsuccessful by the division of the country. Jayavarman II later selected this area as a starting point in control of northern Cambodia.

Jayavarman I left 13 inscriptions during the reign 13 based there. Among them he has been hailed as warriors. He had stretched the forces to Siem Reap, Wat Phu, Battambang, Prey Veng, Takeo (Phnom Bayang), Thailand border Preah Vihear and Kampong Thom's Han Cheikara. Expedition to the northern central Laos is also recorded (Briggs, p54). Anyway he managed maintain unity by military force, but he gained only nominal and superficial unity. Jayavarman 1 directly controlled territory of the Kampong Thom and Kampong Cham in the center of Cambodia. His capital was supposed located at Purandarapura where is unidentified yet. Briggs supposes his city "Banteay Prei Nokor", 1.2 km southeast from Kompong Cham. (Briggs, pp57).

Banteay Prei Nokor is called Banteay Prei Angkor was locted at Kompong Cham area, where is the remains of the Prast Preah Theat Toc, in what afterward became the citadel Banteay Prei Nokor.

In the time of Jayavarman I, inscriptions related Buddhism began to appear. He himself is regarded even as a Buddhist.

More than 150 years later, after the reign of Jayavarman II, the Angkor kingdom, the central administration was recovered. It was beginning of the Angkor dynasty. Even though Jyavarman II pretended as Sivaist, but the Mahayanist Buddhism became rapidly popular which was the most worshiped religion of Srivijaya.

After the death of Jayavarman I in 681, until the declaration of independence Jayavarman II in 802. More than 120 years, the central administration was virtually absent.

On the other hand, local governments had stable tax-income of rice farming and comparatively rich and strong. Stable income of local government became obstacles to establish the powerful central government.

King Jayavarman 1’s successor (son-in-law) was weak. His daughter, Jayadevi’s husband Nripaditya succeeded to the throne but he had done nothing for the unity. Local boss had stronger power already.Jayadevi finally took the Queen's position. However, the territories were devided. Her power was limited in the South (water Chenla), and lost the "central control". Jayadevi also lamented the division of political power. Coedès says that Jayavarman 1 no male successor, Queen Jayadevi could not maintain the unity of Chenla. But M. Vickery says that Cambodia was not patrilineal heritage society. .


3-4-2 Division of Chenla

M. Vickery points out weakness of the Chenla polity.

" Conflict could have arisen as certain poň ( fan =king or ruler) accumulated great wealth through trade and then tried to secure control over land and increasing numbers of retainers, perhaps even over the traditional religious-political-prerogatives of poň-ship, for their own immediate families and direct descendants.

This type of conflict was exacerbated after the decline of Funan, when inland rulers began to develop their communities through ever greater organization of land and people, probably stimulated by wealth, experiences, and awareness of greater polities which had been acquired during heyday of Funan.

 The Jiu Tang Shu ( 旧唐書 ) says "Shen Long ( 神龍) 2nd year” 706 AD, Chenla was separated by two states, the northern part with many mountains and deep grass, called “Land Chenla” and the southern part, near sea and plenty of water, called “Water Chenla”. Water Chenla has width of 800 li, the King's palace is located at Baladityapura.  The same story is written in the Xin Tang Shu, which added that Land Chenla was called ' Wen-tan (文単). However Wen-tan may be a subordinate state of Land Chenla, which often had sent tributary missions by land-route.

With one or two exceptions, the Land Chenla had sent mission to Tang via on-land route.

Water Chenla governed commercial area to Central Kampong Cham where was predominant in economically. This area included Aninditapura region, and Jayavarman 1 had the capital there. C. Jacques does not fix the location of Anindithapura, but the name appears in the inscription of the Angkor period.  C. Jacqes says the location was Purandarapura. However Purandarapura itself is not clear. That is approximately the same as Anindithapura, where would be slightly South of Kampong Cham.  M.Vickery thinks so. His view seems to be correct. The area near the Tonle Sap Lake, located in the basin of the Mekong River, is famous for its commercial activities, region economic development was observed.

On the other hand, Land Chenla was located northern part, full of moutains. Kratié of Mekong River was the center Land Chenla. Tributes to the Tang dynasty were mostly done by Land Chenla, through the on land trade route, using the upper Mekong River. Geographically Land Chenla was inland and dominated by agriculture, and economic development could not be expected so much.

Except for Sambhupura, now the region of Kratie in the northeast, which had its own recorded royal dynasty throughout the 8th century, and which may never been controlled by the kings of central Cambodia, there are only nine 8th century inscriptions outside the area and time which may be associated with Jayadevi, and none mentions a king by name. (M.Vickery, Toyo. Pp27)

M. Vickery are suspicious about the description of the Xin (Jiu) Tang Shu. However, high-ranking Chinese official unlikely to tell an easy lie about such an important matter under the supervision of Ou Yang Xiu (欧陽修). Estimated based on written records based on the description of the "Land Chenla" maybe appeared in tributary missions. Chenla’s victory over Funan, it was proved that disappearance of trade advantages enjoyed by Funan, and fragmentation of many small uniform national benefitsAs the result Chenla king’s power seems to have declined.

The separation Land Chenla from Water Chenla might br the biggest factor for the declining of Chenla Kingdom.

 Land Chenla had continued sending mission to Tang, 10 times during the 8th century. However the mission of Wen Tang after 753 was by the instruction of Land Chenla or by Wen Tang’s intiative was quite dubious.

 Srivijaya group regained control over the South India Sea. Probably the army of Srivijaya landed 'Water Chenla's territory' south of Cambodia before 770. In 768, 'Khaling (Sailendra)' started sending envoy to Tang, that meant Srivijaya had recovered hegemony in the South China Sea before that. The commander of the Srivijaya army was Jayavarman II who left inscription dated 770 at Kampong Cham district.

M. Vickery says the international trade of Funan had declined and had lost the signifivance, however Chenla sent missions many times as following.

In 616 (Chenla to Sui), In 623, (Chenla toTang), 625, 628 (Chenla with Linyi), 635, 651, 682 ,697, 707,710,717(Wen Tang=Land Chenla), 750 (Water-Chenka?), 753 (Weng-tan), 755 (Weng-tan), (Weng-tan) 767, 771 ( King Po-mi-Weng-Tan, ), 780 (Chenla), 798 (Weng-tan), 813(Water Chenla), 814 (WaterChenla), 1116 (Angkor, under Suryavarman II), 1120 (Angkor), 1155 (Angkor and Lopburi), 1200 (under Jayavarman VII, Angkor).

True Chenla the tribute for the first time of Sui Yang Emperor. Since in 616 to Tang., in 628 , Chenla sent envoy together with Linyi by sea. In 628, Isanavarman asked Linyi to send envoy to Tang by Linyi's ship. The both states visited Tang at the same time, the October 628. At the time Tang's Emperor Tai-song (太宗 ) was very delighted and said 'Chenla's effort is highly appreciated, coming on-land and by sea ' and gave large award to Chenla. Especially neighoring states ' friendly relation was most favorable for the Tang Dynasty. Chenla apparently had sent mission before through on-land route before, using the upper Mekong River and entered Yunan then to the capital of Tang.

In 750, Chenla sent mission with its tribute ‘alive Rhino’ which is difficult transport on-land. So this mission might go by ship If so, this Chenla ia ‘Water Chenla’ which occupied Chiya area and temporary gained freedom of sea-faring from Srivijaya. This is historical guess, but Water Chenla might have attacked Chaiya around 745, and got martime freedom...

In 814 and 814, Tang recorded that Water Chenla missions came, but they were prrobably ‘Angkor mission’. However, Jayavarman II might be prohibited to send envoy to Tang by Srivijaya.

 In 1116, Angkor restarted sending envoy to Tang, under Suryavarman II. At that time Angkor kingdom got freedom from Srivijaya (San-fo-chi).

According to SKT inscription(dated,1053), in 802,  Jayavarman II declared the full independence from Java (Srivijaya), and he became the King of the world" . However Sdok Kak Thom(SKT) inscription was written in 1053, which is the only one inscription about Jayavrman II.

The story of fully independence from Java seems fiction. In Japan a famous historian says in NHK TV that Angkor was the center of east-tradeHowever Angkor had not trade relation with China for 300 years, so Angkor could not be trade champion of Southeast Asia.

The Jiu Tang Shu write about Water Chenla;



The border , east-west-south-north 800 li(320 km), east faces Panduranga (current Phan Rang), west faces Dvaravati, south faces sea and north faces Land Water. The capital is caled Baladityapura(婆羅提跋)but the real location is not identified yet, C. Jacques says it was Purandarapura C.Jacquesand M. Vickery says it was City of Indrapura Then whee was Indrapura? Judging from inscription (k.105 and k.325), it is said that ‘Banteay Prei Nokor’ south of Kompong Cham,might be the most suitable place.



The position of Lopburi had been the forward base of Tambralinga to supervise the  Angkor kingdom for long time Suryavarman I saidcame from the king’s family of Tambralinga aand strong base at Lopburi..

After nvasion of Choka in 1025, the headquarters of Tambaralinga was perhaps destroyed by Chola and Lopburi got some independence. Lopburi had been historically  active as commercial city and there were some iron and salt making facilities in its neighbor.

In 1200 Angkor under Jayavarman VII, sent the last envoy to the South Song cort, At that time Angkor mission probably reported about the recent history of Angkor and Champa. The Chinese officials recorded thestory told by Angkor mission, among which the invasion of Champa in ‘1177 incident’ might be inserted.

 M. Vickery is very skeptical about the ‘1177 incident’.

Afterwards. In the Ming times, Sukhothai and Lopburi called Xian-Luo Kuo (暹羅國)..


3-5 The End of Pre-Angkor ( Chenla)

After the death of Jayavarman I in 680-681, succeeded his son-in-law Nripaditya. But he could not govern the kingdom, Jayavarman's daughter became the queen of the kingdom. Her inscription dated 713 was left in Angkor area, and her title was ' vrah kamuratan an' which meant the Khmer royal title and her inscription axists at  Ak Yom, western end of West Baray..

Acctually she governed Water Chenla area, Queen Jayadevi seems so far respected by local kings. But she could not maintain its national unity, and her dominion was said to be limited Aninditapura= exact location unspecified) said, and stayed in the area. In the 8th century no central government exised. But is the southern half of the Cambodian somehow Water Chenla maintained so far strong power, and Water Chenla probably attacked Srivijaya and temporarily occupied Chaiya.


According to Briggs, when Isanavarman attacked Baladityapura area. Then Anindithapura first surrendered to him. The rulers of this region, came from the blood line of Kaundinya-Soma (柳葉) , in other words they are blood group of traditional Funan line. Of course it is dubious, but they wanted to say they were different from Chenla group. However they are probably not included in the main family of Funan and in the neutral position.

"Xin Tang Shu” says the capital of Water Chenla was ‘Baladeva (婆羅提抜)’,  so it miht be ‘Baladityapura’ as Coedès says. Originaly,there was King Baladitya in the past. But the location of ‘Baladityapura’ is not identified. C.Jaques says it may be Purandarapura where is also, unclear. M. Vickery suggests it might be Indraoura. (Vickery, p355).  So Indrapura a problem somewhere that comes next. Inscription K.105 and K.325 from, it is in the South of Kampong Cham, Nokor (Banteay Prei Nokor). In the 7 - 10 centuries, Indrapura might have been from Kampong Cham to Kampong Thom area, (Vickery, p356). However, after long term, Indrapura might be narrowed, and Kampong Cham was the major city in the South. Perhaps King Jayavarman 1 had put his capital there. Water Chenla territory was the lower basin of the Mekong River, which leads to the Tonle Sap Lake area, it was in the heart of the economy of Angkor. Dr. Sugimoto says that Angkor Borei is Baladeva (Sugimoto,p376). However, the expected decreased economic clout left Hunan and too skewed to the South and the original foreign trade capital after the Angkor borei district.

"True land Chenla" the Mekong River Sambor, Kratié, mainly North until the Mun River basin hereto was, Briggs said. Sphere has been long-standing mysteries do Auntie Lo offer excluded Castle in this "land true Chenla" and "water true Chenla" becomes almost clear.

Briggs founded Land Chenla: it is Sambhuvarman That person though should not have detailed records that. Considered became the first King of the thumb PLA's daughter sambuvallman she aninditrapla nuripattindravallman son putiacaraksha (Pushkaraksha) and uncertainty is married, he became King of Sambu PLA said. It then became King, the keeper Princess of the day so far with regard to this Prince of the Moon comes to (Briggs, p58). However, this story is M. Vickery Completely denied the Vickery. Stories related to putiacaraksa said all that Coedès fiction. (M.Vickery, Coedès ' Histories of Cambodia, p18, 2-7 reference )

"The Xin Tang Shu" is Land Chenla  a simplistic view that you have. That is of course was just a statement simply country served Land Chenla trade road, when tribute had himself "Land Chenla:" would be. If you do not end up rated light treatment from the Court of the Tang dynasty. Statements simply has received significant treatment in geography Zhi on the 'Kah Tamra". New Tang dynasty calligraphy of "true wax with" part "land, Chenla or Geelong statement easier, said Mapo censer with 700-RI, King number" "and is. "" and that of course is not true Chenla King "statement simply of King" of the name.


2-6 Jia Tan(賈耽、『皇華四達記』'Imperial China Four Directions Roads

2-6-1 Road to Luo Yue (羅越)

Statements have shown the way in describing the geographic vision of 賈耽の『皇華四達記』Jia Tamra on just the "Xin Tang Shu, the Southeast Asian countries by road. "From taking State Southwest third line, degree fog hot Ridge, or 二日 line ended in writing, drop,, and of lujiang, and paleo-Dong, honey Stone Mountain, third line optimal writing State sentence Yang Prefecture. Or economic Itani, fourth row ended statements make nation, Formosa, calculation, and third line to statements made outside Castle, or day line ended inside Castle, one said land, Chenla, and South water, Chenla . And southern Solstice revival , ' Southern Luo Yue Guo , or southern 至大 Ocean "and written directions to the Luo Yue overland from China, and it is notable. Scholars walk really Jia Tamra said Japan's Kah Tamra prime-time, and walk by myself can't. Here "Luo Yue" is becoming that Johor at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in the myth, that is, Ratchaburi in the northern part of the Malay Peninsula (Ratchaburi) would be in the area. Interpreted with directions from passing into the Gulf of Thailand. However, unfortunately cannot be specified most places along the way, and "single sentence" from Laos Vientiane (Vientiane, Viang Chanh) but seems not. Into true Chenla home in just one day from a single sentence statement AA may contemporaries were in Vientiane is by. If you must the Mekong River in true Chenla (northeastern Thailand).


2-6-2 The way by sea to the Bay of Bengal through

Mistakes and accepted interpretation of Kah Tamra's 'Imperial China four who record' (also cited "Xin Tang Shu" three kingdoms ") should be noted. This is with indicated routes Kah Tamra goes to the West in the "sea". In is not of course "land" as well as Jia Tamra themselves voyage turned out information gathered from stakeholders, wrote. The original "Solstice Benz PuTuo she wZ. And Nr, line, Itaru army parting Li mountain. Or 5 line to sea (1), 100 li (40 km)r base was Nin, "quality", North and South, north shore is Luo Yue Guo(羅越國), south shore is Shi-li-fo-shi (室利佛逝)law of Buddha orgasm-, Buddha orgasm Shikoku water line 45 days , to MO-Ho-Ling Guo , Southern State, up by. And West (2), three days ended GE GE monk eons Guo, standing Buddha orgasm Northwest corner, 別島 , Qiang people multi-sho exposure, shipbuilding of John the fearless toukagettan Hiroyuki. Sono -Luo Guo . -Gora West of hotel Valley Luo Guo . Or noting GE GE monk eons 45 line, Deng ended wins a day. And West 5 line, ended -Russia national day. Or 6 day's line, to Auntie Guo Temple. Or North 4th, lead teacher child Guo,"phrase.

(Map 6, Kah Tamra sea picture)

Paraphrasing "Benz PuTuo Naniwa = panduranga ( Phan Rang ) From sea 2 on reached army parting Li mountain (con DAO Island, off island = Ho-thymine Kunlun City), further 5 on reaching the Strait (1) (at the mouth here). Bay area 100 -RI (about 40km) there. Locals here said that quality (h). Luo Yue is on the north side of the Bay and the South French orgasm (guest-interest French orgasm = Srivijaya). "Would be. "Reputedly" this "5, optimal sea " is the Strait of Singapore said. With "quality" in the Malay language 'Selat ' that's as carefully attached to the commentary of the Malay language. Who don't know theory but in a sloppy stretch. To identify where "quality" is only considered "proper noun" is in difficulty. I "quality" and "SI (Sri)" the heard is whether or not I think. So if local people say is "SI Surat =Sri Surat" i.e. now Surat Thani (Surat Thani) think whether or not. The Bay 100 can't think of Bandon Bay non-if-no-Sato. Singapore Straits (2) width is narrow, karimu island and Batam Island at 10km less. 'Quality' "Malay 'Selat'(meaning sea , Bay) that ordinary nouns, such as think, heck lose reason. But historians almost everyone thinks so. 'Selat ' local sailors usually seems unlikely, "quality", as a noun. Asked where this local sailor or pilot "SI or Chi" and will be answered in.

Next issue " Buddha orgasm Shikoku water line 45 days, to MO-Ho-Ling- " is. From guest-interest French orgasm = Bandon Bay 4-5 day is written down along the East Coast room-interest French orgasm country and end up in the mo-Ho-ling. 4-5 , at, it's impossible to go up to see Mo-Ho-Ling "of Central Java. In Datang Xiyu Dharma high priest of Ching is "無行 monk" is guest-interest French orgasm from Melayu (at the end of Luo Yu = Riau Islands) until 15 days it took. Here the problem of Mo-Ho-Ling refers to where you are at. Where should this actually see satin PLA and Songkhla on the Malay Peninsula. Is in this harbor was Srivijaya in Chinese tributary ship at port. It is not so surprising as part of Mo-Ho-ling is Chinese satin PLA and songkla.

And thus will carefully read through the description of the Shanghai Jia Tamra "dogma" be noticing that one bad mistake. Nouns is the 'quality' is the key word in this case (probably SI-Surat-Surat Thani) in that, also to mean the " sea", "North-South hyakuri air base" in big, can't think of where this is true but the Bandon Bay, further east of the "room-interest French orgasm' 4 says that end up in the mo-Ho-Ling and to sailing days. These together like I should have to reach the interpretation. Incidentally "Luo Yue" is quickly figured to mean the northern part of the Malay Peninsula.

"Mo-Ho-Ling (late) 768 Resumed in tribute (last time I 666 Years) but in the mo-Ho-ling of Shailendra dynasty in Java's "banner = country" but is merely obsessed Srivijaya Group (Union) table. Considered where "late Mo-Ho-Ling (Shailendra) tribute ship to Tang dynasty out or anything, it was a central part of Peninsular Malaysia's satin PLA. Official of the Tang dynasty's mo-Ho-Ling satin PLA (in part) as in 8 "latitude" measured at the summer solstice with isometric stick, reported by the Government to certify. It comes out in the mo-Ho-ling's "new book of Tang" article. "Solstice standing 8 feet table, South view of table 2 Shaku 4 Sun" on the day of the summer solstice that is 8 to stick the isometric and South shadow 2 Shaku 4 -(North 6 ° 45 minutes) because it can be. This Pattani (6 ° 52 minutes) in near Pattani inconvenient that as a pickup. If you facing the songkla Lake from phatthalung carry luggage is considered (land because I could) satin PLA are not applicable either. Pickup 3 Buddha Qi dynasty in phatthalung 2014 revealed by excavation in gold leaf or gold. Author of the "new book of Tang, also Kah Tamra agreed here that in the mo-Ho-ling is in. Incidentally "room-interest French orgasm' article" Solstice standing 8 feet, shadow standing table South 2 Shaku five ' Sun "and guest-interest French orgasm is what 1 becoming shadow as long as dimension that lies in the mo-Ho-Ling slightly South. Considered this difference of songkla (unexcelled room interest Buddha era) and satin PLA (MO-Ho-ling time) is not or. The difference is 40-50Km is.

Front office interest French orgasm expanding Territories via chaiya was shipped to China, the dominant space " 14 City (new book of Tang) "to place spread, and for contributions from around the easy-to-pick most of port for shipment to China is of course, probably red clay country (before the PuTuo-interest country) of Songkhla was in the port of shipment has chosen to certify. Songkhla had been aggregated group-interest French orgasm for tribute "cargo" could give an analogy from the description of this "new book of Tang,. Is located slightly north of songkla satin PLA seems was a dedicated port for China trade "Mo-Ho-Ling (late)" and "qi 3 Buddha" era. A "room-interest French orgasm' and 'mo-Ho-Ling" have existed in the head official of the Tang dynasty. Even the author of the "new book of Tang, about the geography of this area considered not correct recognition. There are conflicting statements in is hopeless.

Channel here in Singapore Strait, further from the mo-Ho-Ling (Sathing Phra) and "West strait (2). Out of the Strait in the West 3 day there reaches the "GE GE monk SHIDO-" unspecified locations. In Jambi island. There is a lot of pirate danger zone is written.

Kah Tamra describing routes dry-dock to Sri Lanka from India is evident from East Coast in Bandon Bay (Caiya, Surat Thani) and Songkla, Sathing Phra district 2 Would be should think about and describing the location. In the Tang dynasty Nakhon Si Thammarat was not used much by merchant ships. Also, on the West coast of the Malay peninsula is Jia Tamra Kedah and Ko Kho Khao Island (哥谷羅), just in front of Takua Pa. Jia Tan named 2 big port on the east coast and 2 big port on the west coast. (and North Shore law-Luo Qiang,-Lo Western law Valley Luo Guo) of is.

Map 7. Hotel Valley-(Coco Island = Tak APA)

In these major ports. If you think Kah Tamra is easy to understand and should be explained "by sea" to the main port, his "intention" to all naturally becomes clear. Is the starting point of misunderstanding of the historian in the future quality of Malay 'Selat ' starting point is the point thought, and it means "straits" is a common misconception. "Economic geography" knowledge was in precedence than linguistic knowledge in this case. A thought because they thought "room-interest French orgasm'"palembang"Luo Vietnam's North would be"Johor". "Reputedly" was increasingly out of control more and more. Which should came to Johor besides another idea if you refer to the article "new book of Tang" other "Luo Yue" you. Myth ( Reputedly ) Don't know anything had to swallow.


2-6-3 Luo Yue in the Northern Malay Peninsula

, Under the "new book of Tang" Southern barbarians " Luo Yue , 5000-ranging North Sea, Southwest Valley Marriott Hotel- . Shou rise ", Minato, profane and whom Luo pot bottom said. goodness shipbuilding through Guangzhou, State required more than listen "phrase. Said Luo Yue of the Southwest in the hotel Valley NA (Cocos Island). In writing on the West Kedah ( North ) at Hotel Valley-a (-Lo West law Valley Luo) and has. In short Luo Yue in the far north than Kedah and the Malay Peninsula southernmost Johor is unbelievable. Also Luo Yue people ' Assistant-bottom , hails from the dvaravati "and using the same, be a polite description. Both people were in Hmong. Johor residents in predominantly Malays. Luo Yue was probably room interest French orgasm control and in their own country in tribute is just couldn't, merchant ships came in Guangzhou each year to commercial-based trade and port authorities must be reported (State always deeper than listening) and is written.

In the "new book of Tang" in this way-Vietnam 3 Is described elsewhere. After each reading when compared also the approximate location of the Lo Wu border crossing Vietnam reveal should have. Think northern part of the Malay Peninsula in North Kedah and a completely different direction and "Johor". Most likely also Imperial Prince Takaoka, aiming to go to Jersey from here in the mountain trade routes Burma tenacerium en route to the sickness. Johor, was killed by a tiger that is simply a myth. In tells the history of poverty is in the Japanese cemetery in Johor Bahru Malaysia built the monument of Prince Takaoka. The theory that Johor had Luo Yue in simple misinterpretation by modern scholars could not correctly reading sea Handbook for Kah Tamra is cited in the "new book of Tang, geographical journal.

2-7 Michael Vickery critisize Coedès  

Here again Dr. Michael Vickery of you want to consider the theory. He acquired Ph.d. at Yale University in the United States who,1960 person from the adolescent years residing in Cambodia, continued research activities. He has published about Champa excellent papers. M. And presented many papers blog about the doctrine of the Vickery, the major ones many printable. However, unfortunately in his main work "Society, Economics and Politics in Pre-Angkor Cambodia: The 7th-8th Centuries. Tokyo"Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, The Toyo Bunko, 1998... "( Toyo Bunko published ) Only is not commercially available, is difficult. However I have in the University Library; His book is ancient Khmer history from this learn who must read say.

 Coedès in Southeast Asian history performance is certainly bigger and 20 May be called during most of the century, the doctrine of the Coedès makaritsu worldwide as "myths". But made a number of important and decisive mistakes in studies of Srivijaya Coedès is small by: as pointed out in the history of Srivijaya. But not limited to the Srivijaya, "former Angkor = ancient Khmer history" in also M. Vickery bash Coedès misunderstanding or exaggeration.

The ancient Khmer history 1000 In the region in terms of correct history is not recognized and there is an inscription above the base, and it is even mikonasanai by outsiders to inspect. However, if someone is reading it, one related to the construction of the temple land donors such as much of the inscription is not tied to the elucidation of the history itself. About the archeology as well. Also on the Chinese classics "true Chenla (Chenla)" about so much writing is not. Many characters, the connection is not always clear. Is not none, it just history stories correctly depict a decisive key to have difficulty in the history. To correctly understand history very important is the temporary capacity of individual historians. The hypothesis is backed by a variety of materials, must be verified. Also energized a review article itself is not. Also inscription is always telling the facts objectively and is not and is, librarians too.

In the following, M. I'll try understanding the Coedès Vickery. One of the papers are housed in a collection of his "Coedès ' Histories of Cambodia" in Silpakorn University International Journal (Bangkok) Volume1, January-June 2000, pp.61-108 that there is a thesis. This is M. Silpakorn University of Thailand's Vickery (historical center) in the Coedès criticism of intensive speech thesis. (Of course even further in doing Coedès criticism)

Should be called the masterpiece of Coedès " The Indianized States of Southeast Asia " 1968 Edition ( The original France language ) About the American scholar's O.W.Woters The ' No course on earlier Southeast Asia history shuld be taught anywhere for foreseeale time without frequent reference to Coedès's book ' Jumped complimented the. In addition, renowned as an authority on the history of the Thailand David K. Wyatt even that match the tone. In "standard textbooks" required reading for the student to learn the history of Southeast Asia said. In fact Coedès say the books have suffered such treatment in the world. But I read often and know it can be a terrible mistake that M. Theory of Vickery, he said I think.

Wyatt ( Wyatt ) Is now every Cornell University historian Walters (Wolters) of history of Indonesia (early Indonesian commerce) and Srivijaya history etc. There are followers of Coedès. In his essay phenomena of ancient Indonesia seemed to be little argument that without many things a fanciful and assertively wrote.

M. Vickery is fine do you read the Coedès and swallow the ridiculous, the handling of the "hold" saying no. I also book Coedès Coedès was aware that land mines are hidden in various places, full of danger. Where hidden lies and mistakes the amateur cannot be determined. However wanted to graduate students of Oriental history in Japan was made the No. 2 in the famous University of foreign languages should be "France," and rejected the students 'Chinese language' and had existed until recently surprised. In short if you study theory of France it was OK with it in. Graduate students do not read the Chinese classics to more natural, and the Southeast Asian history of Japan is more often than not.

"Coedès about Vickery so truncate .

"Coedès, in his books, did not write as a scientist. These books are not high-standard schalorship. They are intellectual entertainment for well-read dilletante. They are monuments to uncritical synthesization, some of which belongs in historical romance, not in history "

Say, and possibly not worth the name of historical science, historical novels like that.  Coedès of the "Coedès a great synthesize-indeed that may have been his greatest talent when functioning as writer of historic accounts; and he had to find, or imagine a connection every detail and some other detail in another time or place " and it's in the history narrative authors rolling up stories, to the trivial fact of it here and there without thinking of time as good as that.

Certainly palembang keducan Bukit ( Kedukan Bukit ) Inscriptions from Shrivijaya will find the word great excursions starting from points tied the room utilization Buddha orgasm but rather in a Chinese book that Coedès first, not reasonably deserve evaluation from Coedès, palembang Home Office interest French orgasm is the history of Srivijaya was veering in unexpected directions.

Coedes achieved a great discovery with the point (Coedes is not about in first even it) to have tied to "Shi-li-fo-shi = Srivijaya". Shi-li-fo-shi ( Srivijaya ) in the Chinese text was difficult how to read, but it is certainly Srivijaya...

Until this point Coedès was correct, however he derailed from the real history of Srivijaya. He misunderstood ' Palembang was the capital of Srivijaya and the newly assigned king Jayanasa was the Maharaja of Srivijaya.' Palembang was a newlly occupied by Srivijaya and became one of the subordinate states of Srivijaya.

In the classical the Chinese book, Rooms, French orgasm (Shi-li-fo-shi) was not identified properly, so Coedès ' reading is highly appreciated by scholars. 'Srivijaya' from the inside of the Kedukan Bukit inscription at Palembang should have considered more carefully. This inscription is basically the victory momument of the Srivijaya's army against the local kingdom. However Coedès jumped to the conclusion that in 683, the Srivijaya kingdom was established at Palembang. Actually the army of Srivijaya invaded Palembang from the Malay Peninsula with big navy force...

Coedès had made grave mistake from the very beginning and the Srivijaya history had deflected to the terrible direction.

Xin Tang Shu ("new book of Tang,) says that Srivijaya had 14 subordinate states and Cummins, Auntie dew (Lang-po-lu-si) , the Nicobar Islands were located at the west of Srivijaya...

 I've come to not so fix it until today. Japan and Indonesia Government's "Srivijaya's Indonesia" and completely counterproductive it, and supports it, pander to Western scholars coming one after another.

Think the palembang of group interest French orgasm 14 Only one dependent territory ("new book of Tang"), and moreover 683 newly added to the territory since "City (territories here)" in. Nevertheless, Coedès

, decided to room-interest French orgasm capital palembang jayanatha (Jayanasa) King to the Srivijaya Maharaja (Great King) "promoted" to have. In this was he must be old Hunan elites has been appointed to the new King of palembang.

Not only is the first tributary of Office interest French orgasm 670 Early (Xian died between 670-673 Think the departure of Ching, 670 Years) were nevertheless forced to 695 Has years (kongoushou St. 1989). Room interest French orgasm is decided by Royal Decree the amount of food at major tributary countries allow Tang dynasty, did not go to the tribute in this year. This example is not too numerous to mention. More information about small by history of Srivijaya (2010 year settings published by) please see.

Say why Coedès such tricks did keducan Bukit inscription is 683 Commercial reasons and only from the thought that year "tribute room interest French orgasm is later", not with integrity is fragmented and inconvenient. So if Coedès will ended up doing to the fabrications of history. In this notice is no historian in the world is also puzzling. Historians in Japan I can read Chinese classics did not point out this responsibility was vital and should be. En route to India Ching called "room, French orgasm ' on 671 Was not in years? Room interest French orgasm is, of course, established ago it was known to the Chinese people, there would have been.

M. Vickery and Assembly history wrote of his Vickery there for the reading of the inscription on each of the Coedès have to decipher those inscriptions misclassifies points out many. Not with certainly the Coedès examples begin with historical facts do not respect too much too often, for historical scientific analysis. In his book should be "novel" and also rather it.

M.Vickery appreciated the capability of Coedès as reader of the ancient inscription. However M.Vickery criticizes Coedès ' method to make his histrocal framework and unscientic understanding of the history. Certainly Coedès often did not respect the historical facts and neglected historical scientific analysis. M.Vickery says that his book should be called "novel".

After reading the analisys of M.Vickery, many complicated facts are well clarified. However he also makes some misunderstanding. For instance that Funan declined naturally because the international trade deminished and Jayavarman II's 'Java' meant 'Chmpa' and so on. He lacks the basic understanding on Srivijaya...

There part and also certainly read the schwangauer Hof's book ancient Khmer history on earth? are they think I don't know. M. Easier to really understand Vickery have to sort out the problems. However,M. Is not correct all its Vickery 'hypothesis'. For example I agree to Champa as "Java" in his view. It goes without saying that there is need for Cambodia's ancient history researchers more research on many aspects. You may say but by his study of the ancient Cambodian history quite been elucidated. History of Cambodia have been specially made by  COEDÈS history of Srivijaya as well should have a major overhaul.

M. Are going beyond elucidation of ancient Khmer was Vicario's book features, lots of things to read from the inscription on the social structure. There appears to a positivistic view of history in his. According to him is the surplus of rice farmers harvest of 60estimates and would have had about percent. That was soon overwhelmed by voila can accumulate considerable wealth as a ruler if only this, that many soldiers would be in action and the military and become mighty, most of that income was dependent on trade, Hunan also granted you can see better. Also, can understand circumstances amassed military power and economic strength of its own region. And conversely of "centralized" system maintenance from the beginning was not easy in will be able to say. It is 7th century 8 appear in the form of the collapse of the Central Government truly Chenla during the latter half of the century. Jayavarman 2 in with the advent of the world for the first time reconstructed true Chenla Central Government.

Also about land owning farmers observed land ownership only cultivation rights were given as is. Land ownership and in temples and local Ministers said there are about "donations" for their inscription. To clarify the ownership of the land it is, and have revealed some property rights.

No money as a medium of Exchange, is frequently used in silver bullion and clothing (many of which are imports from India) and rice and his reasoning. No differences of course regional specialties such as a (rare) also participated in it. Inadequate formation of centralized government that did not have a common currency was in underdeveloped commodity economy was not. However, Buyeo in the southern dynasty coins will no doubt there are. Money order pattern number was excavated from the ruins was ruled of the Hmong. This would be what became the measure of value, and in the medium of trade economics. It is not, however, a "barter" economic center in the Inland rural areas, South Buyeo coins also used much is still unclear. In that there was no need for the money that didn't exist in the days of true Chenla peasant-oriented community in the stages of underdeveloped commodity economy.


No. 3 Establishment of Hunan chapter and Office, French orgasm

In Hunan was certainly kicked from the Mekong Delta, the political economy of Hunan turns the name room interest French orgasm = Srivijaya, then developed greatly.

3-1 Funan was alive

6 Hunan should be destroyed in the middle of the century under the "new book of Tang, Southeast Asian transmission and appeared as a tribute nation. "Hunan, southern Japan, 7000-RI, the South area (PVC figure) Cave, the profane and the ring King (Champa), of Castle palaces. Last name Wang Yong Gu long, being heavy, fence Castle, leaves more than covered shop. King out, riding elephants and man black body, hair, "and is a lived a fairly frugal Palace, and look. Name ", and Tuoba Mashu (Varman)", is not like a former Hunan royalty, "Gu Long'. It should be written and Kunlun in ancient Khmer 'Kurun ' , which means "ruler" or "King". Even the elder statesman if the Royals 'Kurun' and might have been called. Word "Kunlun" is unique in the Chinese and Southeast Asian people call themselves "Kunlun" is unlikely.

This story is similar to King of the Board Board of . Originally Mong is the King of the Board Panel considered the surname "Yang" and has written 'through ceremony'. "Yang" 'Yang ' , and the meaning of "King" in Hmong. Signs that Chinese classics was faithful in "transliteration". According to the "copy book" as shown above Edition Edition ( ) is militarily weak countries, and Ojo do not and residence of the King were made with short wooden fence. Also Buddhism is thriving, and the Buddha is 10 locations, Taoist temple (senior Buddhist) 1 place that King had incentive Brahman, and. Iron is the point of a spear, jiri use stone such as Neolithic in intact. This testifies that the Board Panel was a "military 弱国". Ordered the Hunan tributary "Edition machine", is easy to imagine that dare's weak army have left in it. 'Sea defence' powerful Navy of Hunan has had guarding the Bandon Bay. No differences had close to zero is unlikely along the land is attacked from abroad.

Also reached the Tang dynasty in addition to Hunan in the "new book of Tang," takenori, jogan: Re mutsuhito, or Kenji bald people, bald, direct Buyeo Southwest, who all 素首, skin of one fat, sea view holes, four size number constantly, who he got to, and see half-welding. "And the tribute during bald man 2 presented the name. Lives in his about bald people living in secluded mountain and have to explain (what fiction would be). Area there was the bald man is slightly west of the OC-EO coast near Kampot (Kampot) Briggs theory is that around here (Briggs, p48). But in Cambodia the Hunan 7 I don't think keeping bases ranging from century.

Hunan comes in addition to other librarians. "Tortoise" (1013 around during the Northern Song dynasty, Wang kin young compiled by after) of vol. 999, outside of the takaomi (44) and "billing" in "taejong 0/875 (ad 643 years)," forest-King Wilson 云為 Buan South, siege, begging nurse relief. "And and so attacked Hunan petitioned the reinforcements in the Tang dynasty and the. Tang dynasty taejong and powers that are ahead of you not accept the petition I would like. In fact attacks from Hunan in the later story was not recorded.

6 The Hunan would have disappeared in the middle of the century 100 Years after attacking the neighboring forest-original said. However it was in fact. That stormed the port of Lin-eup, Buyeo South Administration Board Board country defected to enhance naval force is thought enough. In Tang dynasty for the Hunan tributary comes directly ordered to stop forest-attacks. According to the instructions in the Tang dynasty also Hunan and disbarred as a tributary country once opposed the extreme will suffer from what is expected.

Would be considered identical with Navy Funan in the old Navy attacked once, stands-and applied for relief to the Tang dynasty. 7 in the middle of the century certainly is the Hunan "alive". However where lived in what should be the problem. Such a theory explains it clearly. Each of the reverse from a pioneering Oriental historians in Japan a lot of sloppy writing books is "new book of Tang, has been receiving treatment getting in.

It's become a problem here M. Of Vickery "peacefully unite true recovers and Hunan, the Hunan natural were absorbed by true Chenla" a theory.

However, there is no doubt that destroyed the Hunan dynasty Chenla Sui Shu description only of the evidence. Further in the "new book of Tang," and King 利伊 money Mana, Buyeo South of first, tourist and area "and iscianavallman jōgan era of the Tang dynasty beginning in Hunan permanently annexed, and wrote. Seems that asked for the description of the actual true Chenla as the Tang dynasty because often infested Tang dynasty in Hunan. Completely true Chenla no differences explained "Hunan merging and absorption.".

M. Try the following Vickery "Buyeo Nanping Japanese annexation" theory of the basis K53 Inscription ( 667 Years) to continue from southern Buyeo said Chenla the true King 4 , Total 5 That was stuck in my throat the King's Minister of family ( Vickery, p41 ). Took what action Hunan mainline royalty and ruling hierarchy problem, but of course such cases might be. Also seen from the objective circumstances that disappeared from history, they having been subjugated to true Chenla as a whole and the future that rely on "international trade" to abandon nearly impossible. Kampong Cham (Kompong Cham) of hancei discovered near (Han-Chey) inscription bavavallman chasing fleeing the enemy turn hung, Kings mountain (' Kings of mountainpoints to the royalty = NaN) says that killing, and dispatched the Bard for the victory and touted nationally. No idea other than that it was a battle with the Royal family in Hunan. If fact this inscription M. Preach the theory of peace consolidation Vickery is surprising.

The two inscriptions on the inner door pillars pf te old brick samcuary at Hanchey, just above Kompong Cham on the Mekong, were among the first discovered and were long considered as the mostancent in Cambodia.


Emphasize the belief of Shiva "received from God the kingship" and assume the throne as mahendravarman CITRA Sena, built a Linga, Shiva faith extreme. Among those cultivated in Buyeo in the southern dynasty Buddhism faith is persecuted and went into decline. Yi-Jing in Nankai CDN home companies of "Tuoba South (with Funan) evil Buddhist King, were very prosperous until it was excluded, Buddhist monks and people now respect Jadu (Hindu)" and laments. For royalty it only brought Buddhism to honor former Hunan inexcusable rulers Chenla the true sentiments of many should be. There is no doubt that went into exile had already solid foundation "Board"to many of the elite must have had some after, of course, true Chenla established hegemony in Hunan royalty intact residual as a district of the royal dynasty of Funan and trade was responsible.

From Hunan eliminated true Chenla out in tribute, jogan 2 , ( 628 Years) of tribute have been recorded in the earlier Tang dynasty calligraphy came along with the Lin-eup. This is apparently due to the sea in. Said gave more return, taejong very happy with this tribute. "Taejong Chia and sea fatigue, Tin morale. "And, true Chenla with sea and land that was Kangju to use both. Also see South who was truly Chenla land for Gil jishō-"phrase. Gil the Khmer (Khmer) of thought explained transliteration, which Chenla the true envoys came from "Khmer land" itself. However, the rulers of Funan was forced into exile Edition Edition country still maintains a powerful naval force, no doubt would have foiled the tribute by the true Chenla sea route. Therefore has Chenla the true tribute tribute by road through "single sentence" country, and they forced tribute, got to do. Road dependent tributary tribute local entity and will be in prospect of big profits.

Iscianavallman, Kampong Thom ( Kompong Tom ) Of North 30 Km so iscianapla is the 618 the age established by the capital. Still 170 seemed to be the ruins of Hindu temples and palaces, a huge King capital. Shiva was enshrined in the temple. Also this time combining Shiva and Vishnu and Shiva faith is valued with the 'reformation' of a kind of true Chenla Government approval, even though the same Hindu bukka (Harihara) faith appears in the inscription iscianavallman age for the first time, made some pictures. It is said to promote administrative reform and reformation came also from India and Brahman cattle for many.

It is unclear whether geography is iscianavallman why chose this place in King City. At that match with the river Mekong River to emerge, but on the other hand is tens of kilometers away where the Mekong River, have avoided the assault of the enemy (formerly Hunan). That he was aware of the existence of Hunan power is unclear. If at all true Chenla Hunan integrated peacefully, truly Chenla instead of Hunan "tribute by the sea" smoothly continued should be. True Chenla continues tribute to the Tang dynasty after the name Nan Tang's "Outlook this year (627-49 years)" in the end. That changed after that country that "guest-interest French orgasm'.

3-2 And the appearance of the annihilation of Funan and guest-interest French orgasm then

Buyeo old Southern regime was over, on the other hand, machine Edition country 7 And 併呑 the "red States" in the first half of the century, major ports in Peninsular Malaysia (Kedah Madoka and songkla) governed under the rule. As for temporary room-interest French orgasm interest are "new book of Tang," senri area East-West, North-South 4000 GC far. Mitsuro 14, more than 二國-General "and become long narrow country, because the locations are too far apart to capital 2 says that the divide in the city. One would be in chaiya Kedah was also the capital of the "red country" before another. No difference was responsible on the Straits of Malacca, Kedah. 670 in as a "guest-interest French orgasm' Tang played tribute first, further 680 in order to control territory throughout the Strait of Malacca in the early Melayu southern Sumatra, Jambi, palembang, BANGKA Island soldiers, emboldened by Mo-Ho-ling in Central Java, also 686 took control of in the year. At this time become biggest territory of Srivijaya. In Buyeo old Southern forces at this time already ousted Cambodian true Chenla internal divisions and rivalries elsewhere, had achieved big development in.

NaN temporarily due to the "downfall", 6 More tributary States in the century that is talked about by many historians. Panel Board countries originally practically Buyeo South itself but Paul Wheatley , Such as, are considered "different". In other neighboring countries, Wolf Fang Subashiri and hails from the dvaravati (bottom fallen fallen nigira) series new to appear as a new tributary States (P. Wheatly, p289-290). Many historians see this and think "Hunan are history forever disappeared from". Because they are "room-interest French orgasm' watching and palembang and Hunan and recognition of irrelevant. NaN is "temporarily decline loosened controls of China trade" M. Of course errors in the perspective of Vickery. Rather 6 around the beginning of the century is certain that in the confusion on the political advancement of Northern forces and the Royal family feud in Hunan, rudravarman usurpation of true wax with (South) control of Hunan has temporarily waned. However, Hunan was preparing to bounce back steadily. The answer is here room utilization Buddha die United States of the Malay Peninsula, Central Japan .

3-2-1 Wolf Fang Shu country (langkasuka) tribute

Wolf Fang Suma country (currently Nakhon-SI-SI thammarat) first made tributary beams heaven Superintendent 14 , ( 515 Years), and at 523 Years, 531 Is a tributary of the last year, Chen dynasty light large 2 , ( 568 Years) was. Total 4 is still tribute records of the times. Therefore 515 Hunan political infighting in years (rudravarman usurpation,514 years), such as, is considered maritime power started showing the decline temporarily. Wolf Fang Shu country Edition Edition neighbor around information promptly catches, is expected to prompt action. What Wolf Fang Suma countries then become records; Perhaps Adobe will be considered to be merged to PuTuo (Kedah Kingdom), a tribute to the sui dynasties as "red country". The red clay country 7 is considered integrated Office-interest French orgasm in the first half of the century.

Has spread the theory that in recent years, Wolf Fang Suma countries Pattani, an obvious mistake is this. Without a doubt, was on the SI today Nakhon SI thammarat. Sui era in Taiwu life sent as a Special Envoy to "red clay", always Shun is describing the Wolf Fang Suma country location first. In the record in the Sui Shu "or row 23, Kunio Suma, West 望見 Wolf Fang mountain" phrase. Condor Island 2-3 day cruises and land on the West side, saw a mountain. Aim for the mountain and this sailor-land mark, and behind the Nakhon SI SI thammarat Khao Luang mountain (elevation 1820m) was no doubt. Langkasuka to Pattani and modern "myths", but plain in Pattani, no essential mountain. Doesn't move mountains.

Curiously, almost all of Thailand's modern historians believe that Pattani langkasuka (Ling Fang Cummins applied). Pattani inland yarang (Yarang) the Mission of the United States and joint excavations, ruins and believe it is the capital of langkasuka. Ling Fang Cummins applied and believed in Pattani United States people without Lok Chinese classics, is in. BTW in Pattani Ling Fang Cummins applied literature stated that does not exist in this world. Zhao ye are suitable 1225 only have assumed that in the future so that, based on the description of the 'various cocorozashi' was published in. Of belief No. 1 number 1621 Modo bunso Zhi, a compilation in the original on the indicator. Zheng He wrote voyage figure named "Wolf 西加" is coming to the South next to the "grandchildren mother development (Songkhla). Of course this is Modo original written rants with the intention of "langkasuka" was wrong. What indeed is charged with "Ling Fang Cummins applied" focuses "Wolf Fang Shu country" Kanji "Wolf 西加".

'Various cocorozashi' by Zhao ye's described country Ling Fang Cummins added that suitable 1225 Read "langkasuka" and this year, the location is just horse order from 6 One day because it will take Pattani is not the reasoning of the later scholars, nothing on other grounds. In the 'various cocorozashi' "Ling Fang Cummins under national, self made horse Decree wind sail 6 daylight at night-flowering, as also with land" and is written. From Nakhon SI SI thammarat in order for single horse from 6 nothing more than conjecture, sailed at once Pattani or not. It has ignored all historians have always Shun writing becomes. Description of the various cocorozashi compared with the description of the Sui Shu always Shun much lack specificity. Zhao ye called are suitable mainly finished writing 'various cocorozashi' by hearing from Arab merchants at that time. Zhao ye might misunderstood single horse order Dan brow flow chanthaburi here probably facing the Gulf of Thailand, and it seems that is suitable.

However ironically, Pattani and seems to 'various cocorozashi' names are written. It is in the "remove shoes". Unplug the "pa" and "shoes", "ta" is. It is no wonder Pattani and version with PATA. Would say 'various cocorozashi' "Ling Fang Cummins under Guo" is gone nowhere. And so hesitant to read "remove shoes" Pattani and historians, it's "the Batak of Sumatra", such as about describing the improbable, unknown location but thought I had. And opportunism of historians but it is good. Wolf Fang Suma country then beam "normally 1989 (523 ,), in Odori 3 , (531 ,), light of Chen 2 , (568 years) and continue giving a total 4 only in. Wolf Fang Suma country appeared has petered out in Hunan 6 timing to match in the first half of the century. Seems to not taking Funan's control until it has power as a trading nation, while a direct tribute to.

3-2-2 Drought PuTuo interest and red clay country office interest France die

Of trade powers was based on the Kedah Wolf Fang Suma country then what happened is another Riddle, but is assumed to be absorbed in PuTuo (synchronize), became a part of the "red country". M. Dried surprisingly Vickery obediently accepted theory of the  COEDÈS PuTuo interest was on the island of Sumatra. Ming dynasty 3 Buddha Hitoshi of article ,' Hijaz dried PuTuo interest. Takashi Takeshi emperor Liu song, when it's always dispatch Bong Gong. Liang Wudi during some Solstice. Song name 3 sanfoqi, o. m. dirty . "And, and interpretation of the  COEDÈS is though of" France 3"" drought PuTuo interest "in 3 Buddha Qi (Srivijaya) was in palembang, said the drought PuTuo interest was in Sumatra is simple extremely puerile interpretations. Actually "3 Buddha Qi" Union regime of Jambi and Kedah, chaiya3 of that. This is a coalition of the major countries of former Srivijaya (Shailendra) group. Be assumed simply believe this "Kedah" is author of the Ming dynasty, wrote. In direct negotiations with the Chola were looking at relations with the Chola (Note coshiki) in Kedah Malaysia representing 3 Buddha Qi, was acting. Is the author of the Ming dynasty Kedah namely "dried PuTuo interest" so the drought PuTuo interest with 3 Buddhist Qi wrote. Ming ginger garlic sauce, King called themselves "3 Buddha Qi" and the tribute came from future historians even heavy errors, palembang = third Buddha Qi = Srivijaya and blurrings mistakes mistakes would be. Which historians have unfortunately caught in Japan. It still continues today.

Powers of Sui Yang emperor sent a Special Envoy "red clay country" 3 After the tribute of labors 6 , ( 610 Year) finally disappear from the top of the Sui Shu. The reason is not stated. Red clay country is considered gone (absorbed) merged Buyeo old Southern regime (at that time machine's) then. Buyeo old Southern regime ostensibly continued tribute sign machine machine while also were gearing up for the "room-interest French orgasm' founder. Buyeo old Southern Government absorbing Panel Board base, with red clay country and achieve the unification of the Malay Peninsula,670 in "room utilization Buddha orgasm" that "sign" a tribute to the Tang. Red clay country puts home in Kedah, maybe East Coast seem to songkla had talks with sui territory. This side plot is rather as "the missing link", so to speak, but this scenario is unthinkable. Story, however, is not due to the use of force or by "dialogue" is certain that the unification of the Malay peninsula was made the armed forces unification was not reported.

"New book of Tang" Rooms, French orgasm Article " One said group profit Buddhist pledge. Excessive military student Li mountain 2000-RI, senri area East-West, North-South 4000 GC far. Mitsuro 14, more than 二國-General. West Geelong-dew Cummins . "And, in the article of the Sui Shu red clay country" East landison ladies national, West Pasasan Luo Qiang , southern Mo-Ho-Lo Fudan international, North without justifiable grounds oceans, regional coefficient senri "phrase.

That the Nicobar Islands as "t. Auntie dew Cummins' Office interest French orgasm is East (Malay Peninsula), and is clearly the"new book of Tang,. Also in Sui Shu ' red clay country, Hunan, other,. In South Sea, water line amarube, GC people, capital. Earthy colors many red, attributed more to go. East landison ladies-, West-RA intact national , southern Mo-Ho-Lo Fudan international, North without justifiable grounds oceans, regional coefficient senri. And King last name clouding his fame and fortune wealth-myocardial infarction, wisdom of 國近 far. "And thewill come out"West Auntie Luo intact-"this is same as"t. Auntie dew Cummins", red clay country also guest-interest French orgasm was located to the East of the Nicobar Islands. It was the same Malay Peninsula that becomes. And t. Auntie dew Cummins ' Langka Balus ' that in the Hijaz in the Nicobar Islands, Persian geographer Ibn filderzbe (Ibn Khurdadhbeh), such as in the 9th century were commonly used word "Han" (Keisuke Kuwata, p199). Dr. Keisuke Kuwata was aware of this, but had adopted the  COEDÈS palembang theory yourself. It might be too was committed to the schwangauer Hof theory for the back on track there was until the end. By the way and South Mo-Ho-Lo Fudan country is of red clay country South is the Kelantan (Kwlantan) written in Ko na Uni and is the same as the country was called. This is in the song book " KO na easier kuniharu ajatasatru Auntie, " and must be ruled out because they are not on the island of Java that mid-'theory 'has been in. In "ajase Auntie" and was mean Malay Peninsula almost ago the Tang dynasty. Jayavarman later in 2 read "independence from Java' of the world independent of the States of the Malay Peninsula that Srivijaya and legitimate interpretations.

Dried PuTuo interest plus Wolf Fang Suma country. "red country", Edition Edition (Hunan) plus red thought followed by guest-interest French orgasm encouraged the consolidation of the Malay Peninsula. However, aggregates "the tribute for goods from the territories of the participating French orgasm since room utilization, for Tang dynasty ship was used for convenience, the port is considered transferred to Songkhla port chaiya was used during the red clay. Think monk Gion Castle in Sui Shu is a Songkhla would be good. Said Kunio Suma, West 望見 Wolf Fang mountain, at this South we selected basket island by the way WAT par course located near the current satin PLA has been selected basket island is unclear, article is "Wolf Fang suma (langkasuka) SI current Nakhon SI thammarat, and cone-shaped mound (Wat Pha Kho) is not. Large Buddhist temples and Buddha footprint classic, was the place where people worship since ancient times at the Summit here. At that time this area isn't the perfect land, such as the current was divided into several islands, said. Par code is correctly Phra Kaew (Phra Khao= holy mountain) of the meaning.

Should not have to reach any such conclusion and I guess this is not based on clearly written documents together fragmentary descriptions and records of individual books of tribute. Export base, continued the tributary to China Panel machine old Hunan at the West Coast port of Tak APA exclusive and free supplies in the West of imports could, so use a country which was in possible tribute. Kedah started in the era of Office interest France die as Trang (Trang) and Krabi (Krabi), such as of is considered to need to pick up the tributary goods from subjugate countries and then moved to most efficient port (Songkhla) port of export. Hunan, flexible and reasonably consistent export policy of the Office-interest French orgasm was.

M. Solved Vickery 7-8 Said I read that true Chenla close to the coast in the centuries before Angkor-period inscriptions from enhanced executive power towards the northern and central parts of Cambodia, are involved in the water real Chenla inscriptions that did not exist. M. Believe that Vickery and doubted the existence of "true water Chenla" at all, is not a mistake of the Chinese classics. However, in principle do not write "Masashi' is unfounded. Always some sort of record refers to should be. Inevitable shortage of authors and record you see of course definitely misunderstanding or understanding, but modern historians as terrible mistakes are fewer.


3-3 The disappearance of the Srivijaya(室利佛逝) and rise Sailendra

However, after 742 the name of Shi-li-fo-shi suddenly disappear from the Tang Chronicles. There must have been encountered "serious cases" to stop the tribute trade superpowers. Only considered "Water Chenla"must have attacked successfully, but it is not listed in the history books. In this case "Land Chenla" could not be invader, because it ruled the Middle Mekong in Kratié area, and could not go down the Mekong River, through the Water Chenla’s territory. Usually "Water Chenla" must have maitained some navy fource.

But we see no evidence directly on this case. Ligor inscription dated 775 tells indirectly war with ‘strong enemy’. Ligor inscription has a nature of ‘victory momument’, which was set up originally at Wat Wieng , Chaiya, but later removed to Nakhon Si Thammarat (Ligor) . "is unclear, Shailendra panancaran King led a large Navy from Java island came and defeated the army of invaders of true wax with. You can know in case this set of pretty intense fighting and many casualties. (See below, Perigord inscription)

8 Is thought to the defence of the home country of the Gulf of Thailand usually did not deploy much larger forces, and be in the middle of the century, and focuses on the management of the Straits of Malacca room interest French orgasm. In capital city chaiya the Bandon Bay to and easily attacked the enemy did not expect. Caught the gap flagship was engaged in the Straits of Malacca towards the Navy should think. Most likely murdered many of the Executive room-interest French orgasm at this time that the "Perigord"from is possible. Srivijaya group for the repose of the victims in chaiya new 3 one be built temples (WAT wiang WAT KEO, Wat long). That suggested that there was a large massacre. The Bangkok National Museum bronze Avalokitesvara (Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara-Padmapani) is of Chaiya Wat Wieng from theory is that one of the boromahathat Temple was discovered and will be influential in. And those imported from India at the time, judging from their performance is considered.

Photo 29. Statue of Kannon Bodhisattva of Chaiya, Wat Phra Boro Mahathat Temple, Bangkok National Museum

Srivijaya group 760 In the beginning of the Decade and recapture the chicha 768 In the mo-Ho-ling is about 100 The tribute in the Tang dynasty again interrupted period of years later. The War Memorial of their so-called "Perigord inscription,775 year" is. Shailendra military mainstay of chaiya rescue squad that was also apparently by the inscription. This achievement Shailendra Javanese (panancaran King) was put forward for Srivijaya Group Commander (Maharaja = King). Shailendra dynasty is originally one of Hunan's royalty was no different. It seems impossible that no outsider is chosen as the "Maharaja".

Shailendra Navy victory emboldened, the hub city of the true Chenla along the Mekong River and Champa (Lin-EUP) Raiders. M. Vickery Shailendra attack is repulsed by the Champa King, 1 Is still such inscriptions in the local, and it became at the end. But Lin-eup, tribute, treasure 9 year (750 years) get cut off at the end. Shailendra attack recovers Champa cannot be more of is considered a serious damage. Shailendra army to repel the inscription only emphasized the attack left significant sequelae of the by-election. Among the most important key to unravel the mystery of the Srivijaya history this is. Srivijaya and suppressed all coastal areas of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Indochina (Cam Ranh Bay area up) about the whole Cambodian (Khmer) 770 circa Jayavarman 2 is considered true Chenla inland seized the Buyeo old South world to the Commander. 6th century true Chenla was expelled from the Mekong Delta Hunan power 200 years in re-appearance as a great Empire to rule the Southeast Asian region including Cambodia and Thailand continental after. However, one declaration of the Srivijaya Maharaja (Great King) is not made. Reverse Sdok Kak Thom=SKT inscription (1053 , ), Jayavarman II made the "Declaration of independence" from the "Java (Srivijaya)". However, it seemed that was under the control of the Srivijaya Angkor dynasty if it sees after passage (tribute performance). This means that differ from China or Europe 'Czar' by the ruler of Srivijaya. So to speak in "quiet great empire".

True Chenla a likely defeat in chaiya district continue to Mekong River in dry-dock basin also Shailendra Navy Nhan Dan has. To make Cambodian regime of the country of Srivijaya, Jayavarman 2 in my hypothesis that tailor of King, Cambodian domination. Such a view is Q. Is Welsh " Towrds Angkor "The touching in the M. Vickery and other historians entirely that I do not think so. In any case Shailendra (Srivijaya) in the Mekong River basin somewhere 760 considered building a base of any age chaiya recaptured after 10 minutes. If the770 in kratié (Kratie) of the inscription "Jayavarman" Jayavarman 2 can look as if pointing to the world in the Srivijaya army until kratié dash has been occupied. Kratié was anywhere "land true Chenla" headquarters was located. M. Vickery Jayavarman 2 The world will 770 Dominated the indrapura (South of Kampong Cham) in that. This is Jayavarman 1 were strongholds of the world. Perhaps upstream Mekong River, Shailendra Navy (Srivijaya group), in kratié rule 760 had conquered the heart of true land Chenla in that would be. Shailendra (late Mo-Ho-ling) is 768 seems to be since the restart of the tribute in the year before that was complete the blitz.

742 Elimination of the year guest, French orgasm 750 And the true water Chenla in tribute 768 Of the year "tribute revival of Mo-Ho-Ling (Shailendra) and 775 On I said not everyone presents a hypothesis in Perigord (Chaiya) inscriptions during all that missing link, that connects travellers are thinking. As the entire flow in this wildly wrong, not sure. Srivijaya broke into the Mekong River and entered the coastal capital, killing the King story imbued with hopes to the Arab merchants, Suleiman (Sulaiman) 851 his life in somewhat different plot as the story of the battle of Chenla Kings and the bag (Srivijaya) King. Synopsis young Chenla King was intervening in the bag, the King (Maharaja) was found on the tray on the head and says Minister. Along with the two peoples also Minister to so futile that fostered the King to stop. But into the ears of the bag the great intentions of King Maharaja angry assembling a fleet 暮夜 to covertly invade the Mekong River, take the neck of the young King returned and, wash the skull perfume on, in, back to Prince of Chenla. At that time the bag King added that no is going to usurp the throne of Chenla. This story has spread to India and China said increased evaluation of the Maharaja. It is part to match the story was true: invasion of Srivijaya, but actually the Maharaja after Jayavarman 2 of troops, they occupied Cambodia. Please Q... Wales Chenla King killed mahipativallman (Mahipativarman) is doing something (Angkor and Rome, p55). Mahipativallman think he believed the land true Chenla the last King, murdered 781 , has been estimated at Jayavarman 2 who found and murdered by the world in the person of Suleiman's story so it would seem is. There is still a room for research.

3-4 M. Theoretical problems of the Vickery

M. Of Vickery in the decipherment of the ancient Khmer inscription predecessors such as  COEDÈS mistranslation or misunderstanding to fix significant achievements that must be evaluated first. But he also has some serious misconceptions. The main thing is described below.

3-4-1 M. Misleading Vickery that 1

In Hunan true Chenla stretch forces in the Interior of the colonial powers, and merged the librarians how to write in, actually lost economic power Hunan due to the decline of foreign trade, and surrender to the true Chenla naturally absorbed and was not annexed by the armed forces M. Insist on Vickery.

This is a serious misunderstanding of his. If so, the Buyeo South annexation after true Chenla desperately the tributary trade can't. Moreover, sea exile Government of Hunan of naval by pioneered the tribute by land routes to blockaded. Thought route pioneered by the Hmong in fact borrowed it. M. The Vickery to disregard the importance of trade 7 If it sees the tribute performance from the beginning of century, truly Chenla tributary trade-oriented policy is clear that. But for true Chenla that was unexpected old Hunan fled on board a Navy to maintain and increase mightier "Gulf of Thailand and South Sea of the sea" thing was more than ever ago. Therefore unavoidably true Chenla road (upper Mekong River et al. Yunnan province via) of had to rely on developing root tributary. Tribute by land was responsible for the small nation under the rule of "single sentence". Also is true Chenla in the neighboring forest-trade ship going to multiply the tribute by the sea. It is jogan 2 year (628 ,)10 has recorded on both Japan and Tang dynasty. Impossible to Kangju, and with the help of Lin-eup, Buyeo South era. And in the route of the cruise was with Nan if "peace consolidation" and Hunan had been made, if using, you still need, is should bother not to sea fatigue (Emperor Taizong).

Funan (moved home) fled the country Edition Board on the other side of the Gulf of Thailand, and on the other hand, with the Navy maintains a sea, as previously, continues to make the tribute by sea. Possible and made it use name dial dial: use the country name of Hunan. Think independent State Board country pure and not so understanding. Some scholars argue that "machines machines were in Hunan surrogate country historically"; Many archaeological sites have been excavated, is considered a place of international commerce is still located on the opposite bank of the Tak APA Coco Island. "Hotel Valley" and called on the Chinese classics Coco Island or included it with heart-shaped islet Koran (Koh Lan) was possible. Coco Island Tung Duc (Thung Tuk) the Interior of the island has a wide market, that remains of the original building. In addition, many Arab pottery fragments and beads are discovered.

A key to solve the mysteries of the history of the Srivijaya Malay Peninsula across trade routes is in. Think room-interest French orgasm in palembang and ancient East-West trade routes are completely misalign the study on ancient history of the trade itself become invisible at all. The wrong ancient trade of ' history ' (Palembang → route of Java Island) has been rife with impunity until today, nothing weird in.

3-4-2 M. Misleading Vickery that 2

Champa "Java" he (that Word accent) and with the same thought. Certainly the Champa family of Austronesian languages (Cham tribe) reside and are skilled in sailing, Indonesia language, Malay language and speak the same language. However, first of all is the Javanese word had meaning in ancient times including the Malay Peninsula and its waters (including Javanese). Also of the method described above of "Saya horse offer" is unclear.

The problem here is 802 Jayavarman was the Declaration of independence from the "Java", 2 Said "came to Cambodia from Java" world SKT From the inscription has been left.  COEDÈS believe "Java" and "Java" and expand the discussions that followed. M. That Vickery 'Java' is next to the Champa. Also the  COEDÈS M. Vickery are both wrong.

King Jayavarman 2 II was born in the home of the Srivijaya in chaiya around or be sure where he grew up. Jayavarman 2 the background of parents and ancestors are not always clear, butM. Vickery jayendradipativallman ( Jayendra-dhipativarman ) King Jayavarman 2 and hits his uncle on his mother's side of the world. Briggs he Indravarman 1 and grandfather of the world (Briggs, p98). Jayavarman 2 becomes a starting position of Angkor dynasty,M. Becomes in Vickery Srivijaya at all from the first independent said.

Is now 814 From the year 1116 Until year 300 Become great mysteries over the years why Angkor dynasty ever to China tribute did not take any (including land) that cannot be dispelled. Why did not take any tributary trade benefits free or I cannot be compelled to interpret, rather from the Kings of Angkor had a promises of Srivijaya and some (rather not tribute).

(Summary of the true Chenla)

True Chenla disappearance from the Cambodian Funan then 8 Century have mid-historian and former Angkor period Jayavarman 1 After the death of the world ( 681 ,) 7 Division State and was called "land true Chenla" and "water true Chenla" at the turn of the century. True Chenla dynasty early centralized system, improve the economic ability of the then local authority Division and by collapse and went. The politics of the central authority saivism alone people agreed, also could not be a unifying force. Shiva faith is ultimately King religion-priesthood thought, and did not get the support of farmers experienced Mahayana Buddhism to southern Buyeo period, had faith. Rulers of Funan between Board Panel countries went into exile and unified central Malay Peninsula, see Srivijaya (guest-interest French orgasm)"unify the Malay Peninsula as the country launched a tribute to the Tang dynasty. And Melayu in Southeast Sumatra, Jambi, palembang Srivijaya group in addition to BANGKA Island governed under the umbrella and establish the supremacy of the Straits of Malacca, won the mo-Ho-Ling States in addition to Central Java founded Shailendra Kingdom. Probably invasion of chaiya district water true Chenla, Shailendra Navy (Srivijaya army) out to chaiya and Nakhon SI SI thammarat and recaptured first, followed by meri in the middle of the Mekong River and conquered it, occupied the main ports. Shailendra Navy emboldened, the coast of Champa was also captured. Champa was spared only the occupation but to call off the tribute and then become unusable. Jayavarman 2 II is dispatched from the Srivijaya Buyeo old Southern forces Commander, and almost 30 years wiped out the old truth Chenla power from the land of the Khmer. New political system is the creation of major rice industry and the construction of a large irrigation pond. And widespread Mahayana Buddhism to the masses while maintaining faith Hari Raya, Visnu, Siva faith as King in religious terms, it acted as a unifying force of the regime. Here be established Mahayana Buddhist countries in the area of Khmer. Like a hollowed-out rock by the way in Cambodia on the Malay Peninsula, can be seen as 'Buddha footprint"does not exist. Even if it's just slow the spread of Buddhism can be seen.



Chart 1 , M. Chenla dynasty Kings


King names 


Chinese classics , Etc.


Bhavavarman I

550-600 ?

Rudravarman Son? The Shiva Muslims,



600-611 ?

 Quality-thus, the Bhavavarman Half-brother, Mahendravarman, His father is Virvavarman



611 ? -635?

 Italy have been tasteful footwear, preceded the "monasteries" 利伊 gold, is. Hunan wiped out.



Bhavavarman II

635 ? -655 / 7

Takeo Come from. Isanavarman youngest son?


Jayavarman I

655/7-681 ?

 Spread the true Chenla territory best.


Queen Jayadevi


Jayavarman I Daughter. Mourn the disorder of the world.




 The following is not a King of the national unity.










Rajendravarman I


 Was the ruler of the coastal regions? (Briggs p105)